Duranta: home care
Duranta is an evergreen shrub or tree-like plant with drooping branches, belonging to the verbena family. In our latitudes it is cultivated as a house plant, but so far little is known. How the durant flower propagates and how to care for it, read below.
Botanical description of the plant
Distinguish more than 30 subspecies durants. In the wild, they can grow in the form of shrubs or trees reaching a height of 4-5 m. Duranta is a tropical plant. The stems of the plant are initially upright. As they grow older, they become lignified and become hanging, forming a kind of arch. The shoots branch heavily, which on the one hand adds trouble with pruning, on the other - allows you to create a beautiful crown by adjusting the growth point. Trunks of lignified shoots of some varieties cover small spines.
Leaves of small size, 3–7 cm long, oval-pointed. The edge of the leaf plates is serrate. Outwardly, they are similar in structure to birch leaves, so the plant received the second name "home birch". Painted in plain green.
The durant enters the flowering phase in June, and leaves it in late autumn - in October-November. When creating favorable conditions, flowering can continue year-round. Flowers are tubular with 3-5 petals, collected in inflorescences on the tops of shoots. They can be painted in lilac, purple with white veins and blue shades. In some species, the color of the flowers may be white. Flower buds exude a pleasant unobtrusive aroma. After pollination, clusters of orange fruits form. Important! Flowers and fruits of the Durant are poisonous, so during flowering, keep them away from children and pets. If you do not plan to propagate plants by seed, then it is better to remove the fruit ovary immediately.
|Flower color||lilac, purple, white, blue|
The main types
Of the 30 known species of durants, only a few were able to take root at home:
- Duranta plume is a tree-like representative reaching a height of 2.5 m. Leaf plates are large up to 10 cm in length, green in color with lighter impregnations. The flowers are purple and lilac. The fruits are yellow.
- Duranta variegate - a hybrid plant. The growth form is bushy or tree-like. Medium-sized leaves are colored white-green. The flowers are light blue.
- Duranta is a small geisha - a short hybrid grows up to 2 m in height. It differs from other types in unusual colors. The buds are painted in bright purple. The core of the flower is snow-white. Petals are wavy at the edges.
- Duranta white - grows in the form of a bush or tree. Snow-white flowers exude a strong, pleasant aroma of vanilla.
- Duranta blue or tricolor - different colored leaves. In the central part they are yellow, and along the edges are a pale green color. Flowers of a blue shade are collected in beautiful brushes on tops of shoots.
Conditions for successful growing at home
When growing durants at home, it is worth considering its tropical origin. This will help to create the most comfortable microclimate for the full development of plants.
Durant refers to photophilous plants, but does not tolerate direct sunlight. It is best to place plants on the southeast and southwest windowsills. When the plants have reached such sizes that they no longer fit on the windowsills, they can be placed in the center of the southern room.
Plants normally tolerate partial shade. But, in such conditions, they do not enter the flowering phase.
Did you know? Nitrogen is not only a valuable fertilizer for home and garden crops. Today it is used for the manufacture of the vast majority of explosive substances.
In the autumn period, plants can be left for several hours in direct sunlight. When daylight hours begin to decline, you need to organize additional illumination with phytolamps, extending it to 12-14 hours.
Plants need access to fresh air, but cannot stand drafts. For the summer period, it is best to rearrange the durant on the balcony or in the garden. This will extend the flowering period and increase the immunity of plants.
The optimum temperature for durants in the warm season is +20 ... + 25 ° С. Plants do not tolerate extreme heat, above + 27 ° C, and lowering the temperature to + 12 ° C. Plants respond to temperature violations by dropping foliage.
For optimal development, the durant needs a humidity slightly above average, within 60%. An overestimated humidity threshold leads to the development of root rot.
Durant refers to plants of medium difficulty growing. Providing her the right care, you can achieve year-round flowering.
Watering at any time of the year should be moderate. Water is introduced under the root. You can make several spiral turns around the main stem at a distance of 5 cm from each other with a depth of about 2 cm. Add moisture to the recesses from the watering can with an elongated nose until it seeps through the drainage holes. Then, the water must be drained from the pan and wiped it dry. Do not allow the pot to stand in water. As soon as excess water drains, re-drier drip tray. Root watering can be alternated with soaking. The process involves moving the pot into a container filled with water for 15 minutes. After soaking, the plants need to drain and rearrange them on a dry tray.
Important! If it is possible to get waste water from the aquarium, do not neglect it. In the process of settling and vital activity of fish, its own microflora is formed in it, which positively affects the development of plants during irrigation.
Watering is carried out with soft, settled water without harmful impurities. Liquid temperature should not be lower than + 20 ° С. The frequency of watering will depend on the rate of drying of the soil. It is better to focus on the state of the soil, and not on a specific schedule. You can check the humidity by digging a finger into the ground by 1-2 cm. If the earth remains on it, watering is done too early.
In addition to watering, you need to spray 1-3 times a week, depending on the air temperature. The hotter, the more often you need to carry out hydration. It is not necessary that the water falls on the leaf plates, it is enough to spray water into the air at a distance of 10-15 cm above the plant.
Fertilizers for durants are applied according to the schedule, in accordance with the growing season and the needs of the plants at this time:
- in mid-March - fertilizing with a high nitrogen content for the development of a beautiful green mass;
- from the beginning of April, 2 times a month - top dressing with a low nitrogen content, with a high proportion of potassium and phosphorus to form a strong root system, protect against pests and book inflorescences;
- from the beginning of the buds laying (end of May - beginning of June) - top dressing containing boron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus for abundant flowering;
- at the end of flowering (October - November) - top dressing with calcium and potassium to increase winter hardiness.
Read more about how to feed indoor plants.
In winter, top dressing is not applied, except in cases of year-round flowering. In the case of year-round flowering, top dressing continues to be applied 1 time per month.
In the next phase of the growing season, fertilizer will be required for decorative flowering plants. The complex preparation "Bona Forte" is suitable. To prepare a working solution, 10 ml of fertilizer is dissolved in 1.5 l of water. Use as root and foliar top dressing. For example, in early April, leaf blades are sprayed, in the middle of the month, fertilizer is watered. "Bona Forte" can be used until the end of flowering.
Important! Any top dressing can be made no earlier than 2-3 weeks after transplantation. Also, fertilizers are not applied if the plants are affected by pests or root rot.
Durant is a highly branching, fast-growing plant, and therefore requires regular pruning and crown formation. If you neglect pruning, the plants will not bloom, since the buds are formed only at the ends of young shoots.
The procedure is carried out with a sharpened secateurs, disinfected in 40% alcohol in mid-February. It is necessary to calculate the time so that at least 4 weeks pass from pruning to transplanting.
- a tree;
Be sure to remove wilted brushes - this contributes to abundant flowering. At the end of the flowering phase, remove the shoots thickening the crown, young weak and bald old branches.
Young plants, under the age of 4 years, dive annually in March in pots 5 cm higher in height and diameter. Plants age 5 and over are transplanted every 2-3 years. During the time of growth in the same soil periodically, you need to add a new nutrient substrate and replace each spring with 5 cm of the topsoil. An extraordinary transplant, independent of the time of year, is carried out for plants infected with root rot and recently purchased. New plants need to be given time to adapt (1 month), placing them as far as possible from existing ones in the house. An exception to the rule is the purchase of flowering plants. They can be transplanted only at the end of the flowering phase.
Did you know? One of the latest trends in phytodesign is vertical walls and paintings composed of living plants. Very interesting is the idea of combining durant, grown in ampel form, with palm trees, for example, dracaena. The pot should not be too spacious or narrow. Its dimensions should make it possible to arrange the root system so that a distance of 3-5 cm remains to the walls and the bottom. If you plan to grow a durant, like a bonsai or ornamental foliage plant, then you need to take the pot 3 cm less than the root system. A small pot combined with trimming of the ground part will provoke growth retardation, which will make it possible to form a beautiful crown.
- universal soil for hibiscus with the addition of 20% sand;
- United in the proportions of 1: 1: 1 universal soil for domestic plants, turf soil and compost + 20% wood ash;
- United in a ratio of 2: 1: 1 sod-leaf soil, sand, peat.
Step-by-step instructions for transplanting durants:
- Disinfect the pot with 1% solution of copper sulfate, water the plant.
- Pour the soil with a hot solution of manganese - 10 g of manganese will be required per 1 liter of boiling water. This will be enough to disinfect 5-7 kg of land.
- Fill the pot 1/4 with expanded clay, make a sand cushion (1 cm layer).
- When the soil cools down to + 15 ° C, gently tap the walls and bottom of the pot with the plant, tilt it slightly to one side and remove it with an earthen lump.
- Lightly shake the ground, taking about 1-2 cm, to be able to assess the condition of the roots. If necessary, remove dried, weak root shoots and place the plant in a new pot.
- Align the durant so that the root neck is at the same height as in the previous pot.
- Close the voids with fertile soil.
- Densify the near-stem circle, make a ditch 2 cm deep at a distance of 5 cm from the trunk and fill it with 400 ml of warm water (+ 20 ° C).
- Rearrange the container with the plant in a darkened room. After a week you can transfer to a permanent place.
Reproduction of durant at home is carried out in 2 ways:
Cuttings are best combined with the pruning procedure, autumn or spring does not matter. For propagation, the apical parts of semi-woody shoots are suitable. On the handle should be 2-3 sheets, the rest is better to remove. The optimal length of the handle is 10 cm.
- Make a powder mixture consisting of 10 grams of root, 10 grams of activated carbon and 3 grams of foundationazole.
- Powder slices with prepared powder.
- Mix peat, sand, perlite in equal proportions and spill the mixture with a hot solution of manganese.
- For planting, take an elongated container with a depth of 10 cm and disinfect it with copper sulfate.
- Fill the bottom with a 2-3 cm drainage layer.
- From above place the soil cooled down to + 20 ° C.
- Arrange the cuttings, having buried them in the ground by 2 cm, at a distance of 5 cm from each other.
- Fasten the transparent bag to the containers.
- Install containers in a room with ambient light, where the air temperature is maintained within + 25 ° С.
- Ventilate the cuttings every 2 days, removing the bag for 30 minutes and moisten the soil from the spray gun.
Important! Plants propagated by the method of cuttings enter the flowering phase from 2 years of life, by the seed method - from 3-4 years.
Seeds can be found on online platforms, since it is problematic to get them at home, and in ordinary stores they are rare. Sowing of seeds begins in late February - early March. It is best for seed germination to acquire a mini-greenhouse with lower heating.
- Pour 60 ml of root solution into a shallow plate - 10 g of powder will be needed per 1 liter of water.
- Place cheesecloth folded in 2 layers on a plate.
- When the gauze gets wet, wrap the seeds in it and leave for 24 hours.
- At the bottom of the mini-greenhouse, lay a 1 cm layer of expanded clay.
- On top, place a manganese disinfected earth mixture consisting of peat, perlite, sand and sphagnum moss (1: 1: 1: 1).
- Submerge the seeds in the soil by 0.5 cm at a distance of 5 cm from each other.
- Cover the greenhouse and set aside in a well-lit area.
- Keep the temperature within + 25 ° С, soil moisture - 50%, organize ventilation every day for 15 minutes.
- With the advent of the first sprouts, remove the lid from the greenhouse.
- When 3-5 sheets are formed, arrange a pick in separate containers.
When cultivating durants at home, the main problems of plant breeders are associated with:
- lack of flowering;
- pest attack, especially when plants are exposed to the garden for the summer.
Does not bloom
Lack of flowering can be triggered by the following defects in care:
- an excess of nitrogen - the plant develops a lush green mass, but does not enter the flowering phase, you can correct the situation by changing the fertilizer to a complex for decorative-flowering plants;
- lack of light - in the shade the foliage gains a darker color, the flowering phase is absent or buds are dropping after laying, you can solve the problem by moving the durant to a well-lit corner;
- neglecting spring-autumn pruning - 1/3 will help to correct the situation.
Among the possible diseases, only root rot can affect a durant. This occurs if the humidity regime is not observed and excessive watering is required. To save the plants, carry out an emergency transplant with a complete replacement of the soil. Having removed the plant from the pot, brush off the soil, rinse the root. Remove rotten parts. Powder the affected areas with a mixture of root, foundation, and activated carbon (proportions similar to those described above).
Dry the root a couple of hours in the sun. Then plant the plant in a sanitized, slightly moist soil and set aside in a dark place. The first watering after an emergency transplant can be done after 7 days, adding 1 liter of liquid, 5 g of foundationazole and 2 tablets of activated carbon.
Among pests, on a durant most often settles:
- aphid is eliminated by spraying with tobacco infusion - 400 g of tobacco dust need to be poured into 5 liters of water and infused for 24 hours, spraying is carried out daily 2 times in the morning and evening for a week;
- scabbard - is eliminated with a three-time treatment with a phytoerm solution (1 ampoule per 2.5 liters of water) with an interval of 10 days;
- spider mite - is destroyed by four-time treatment with phytoerm (dosage is similar to that described above);
- белокрылка — потребуется провести от 2 до обработок инсектицидом «Адмирал» (10 мл на 1 л воды) с интервалом в 20 дней.
цветет дуранта примерно с мая-июня и по октябрь-ноябрь, с маленькими перерывами. Набрала кисточки и цветет, потом обрезаю опять набирает кисточки. При этом подкармлмваю раз 5-6 за сезон и стоит на открытом солнце. горшок очень быстро становится тесноватым. Требуется обновление растения каждые два года. ирина киек //forum-flower.ru/showthread.php?p=30443&postcount=5