The guarantee of success in raising pigs is the organization of proper conditions. Housing for these animals is being erected in accordance with a number of requirements. This should be a comfortably furnished room of solid walls. You can prepare a project, make calculations, read the finished drawings and detailed construction instructions by reading this article. Equipment costs are sure to pay off, and the pig farm will be a good source of profit.
Types of premises for pigs
There are three standard types of facilities for keeping pigs:
- A two-row project with three corridors (one central and two along the walls). The choice of this species is advisable with a large population. A very convenient room for both farmers and their wards. Having the opportunity to approach the enclosures from two sides, it is possible to timely and in any sequence carry out cleaning, as well as replacing food and water. Due to free access, if necessary, you can repair the hood, water supply and other equipment. The only drawback of this species is its high cost.
- Two rows of aviaries with two technological corridors along the walls. Aviaries are located close to each other and have an adjacent wall. With this arrangement, sanitary work is noticeably simplified - there is access to the walls, hoods and windows. The disadvantage of this type is the uneconomical use of the area and, consequently, a few more financial costs than some other options.
- Two parallel rows of aviaries with one technological corridor between them. It is possible to build such a pigsty without big expenses. Due to the cheapness and simplicity, this option is by far the most common. The main thing is to correctly calculate the width of the corridor, since here you also need to place feeders and drinking bowls. Less: cleaning up with such a project is not an easy task.
Below are the drawings for all 3 barn options:
Basic pig requirements
In more detail about the basic requirements for a modern pigsty.
The number of animals that you intend to settle in a new stable is a determining condition for choosing the necessary quadrature. The general rule is that for one adult pig you need to allocate an aviary with an area of about 5 square meters (depending on the breed). For young animals will be enough 3-4 meters.
Read about the difference in life expectancy of pigs at home and in the wild.
Plan your machines so that every pig can lie down freely. Count the depth of the stall within 3 meters, the width of the aisles - 1.5–2 meters. The average wall height should be approximately 1.8–2.5 meters. This height is enough to hold pigs as they grow.
To help determine the exact size of the room, a table is proposed:
Air temperature directly affects the metabolism of farm animals. In the absence of optimal temperature indicators, productivity decreases, lung diseases can occur. At too high a temperature, appetite worsens, resulting in a decrease in the reproductive functions of both males and females. If the degree will constantly vary, this will lead to colds and excessive waste of food.
The optimal daily average temperature inside the pigsty is + 17 ° C– + 20 ° C.
High humidity increases the adverse effects on the body of high and low temperatures. The optimum humidity is 60-70%. At elevated temperature values, humidity of 50% is permissible, and at reduced temperature, 80%.
We recommend reading about meat pigs.
Preparing for the construction of a pigsty
Before you begin designing and then building, you must decide what the general concept of the building will be. There are many factors to consider. The role is played not only by the number of individuals, but also by the method of their cultivation (for example, are you planning to organize a breeding stock or will grow already growing young animals).
It is also important to determine whether waste management and feed distribution will be automated, or whether you will do everything yourself. Only by answering such questions, we can talk about the size of the room, the features of the layout and its technical arrangement. And here is the important thing: to keep purchased piglets should be separate from the queens with newborn individuals, which in their turn should grow in special conditions. And automation of work processes will require a non-standard layout of the structure.
Learn in detail how to mate pigs.
Be sure to coordinate the construction with all interested state organizations - BTI ("Bureau of Technical Inventory"), SES (sanitary and epidemiological surveillance), tax and other services.
How to build a pigsty with your own hands
Building a “home” is not a simple matter. A competent choice of location, a clear calculation of sizes, and the presence of all the necessary materials and tools are important.
The considered farm animals are very susceptible to through winds and high air humidity, therefore for their content choose primarily dry terrain. Preferably, the building is located on a certain hill. If there is no access to such a place, then the soil must be well drained.
And to protect the structure from the winds, place it near existing farm buildings or tall trees. According to the sanitary-hygienic rules, a stable for farm animals can be built at least 15 m from residential buildings.
Design and Dimensions
The pigsty project must meet a number of requirements. The walls inside will need to be beaten with boards. This measure is necessary so that in winter the space inside the pigsty does not cool down, and the animals do not damage the walls. With a pitched roof, the minimum height of the pigsty at the entrance should be 2 m with a slope of up to 1.5 m at the end. Near the barn, build a separate barn for storing feed and a place for animal excrement.
Important! Scrupulously conduct all the calculations so that then you do not buy material or, conversely, do not throw the remaining raw materials into the yard.
Here is a diagram of a standard frame pigsty with detailed dimensions:
Tools and materials for work
If you are tormented by the question of what to build a pigsty, then in this case the choice is yours. Boards made of wood, brick, clay are allowed. You can also build a hangar from foam blocks or from polycarbonate. It all depends on the size of your budget. The foundation is best made of concrete, and cover the roof with roofing material or other moisture-proof material. Slate, door and window blocks will come in handy.
To work with these materials, the following tools are useful:
- shovels (bayonet and shovels);
- hammer drill;
- hammer and nails;
- screws, screws and bolts;
- metal corners;
- construction level.
We advise you to read how to successfully raise pigs for the sale of meat.
Now about the phased construction.
Foundation and floor
The foundation must be strong, so it is laid out of concrete, stone or blocks. The main thing is that this part of the building be deepened into the ground by 50–70 cm. And above the ground, the base of the building should protrude by 20-60 cm (depending on the amount of precipitation in a particular area). Around you need to make clay or concrete waterproof coating with an external slope to drain rainwater. Lay a layer of roofing material on top of the foundation to protect it from moisture.
The flooring in the crib is an equally important element, the quality of the livestock health and ease of maintenance of the farm depend on its quality. In this case, concrete, boards are suitable as a material. If you keep only 2–3 pigs, you can get by with the usual solid floor. But for a large farm, it is more advisable to use slotted floors.
The material from which the walls will be built should reliably hold warm air inside the barn and absorb a minimum of moisture. Ideal boards from wood, silicate blocks or brick.
Regardless of the material chosen, the inside of the walls must be planked and treated with lime. In areas with severe winters, the outer surface of the walls should additionally be sheathed with an insulating layer.
Windows should be provided in the crib. Their area should be up to about 10% of the total floor area. It is better to refuse deaf type windows. Opposite windows should be opened regularly for ventilation, especially in the hot summer months.
Ceiling and roof
Correct installation of the roof and ceiling makes it possible to take care of the optimal microclimate inside the barn. In regions with a warm climate, the ceiling inside the pigsty can be omitted. But to provide additional thermal insulation in temperate and cold climates, a ceiling is required. Did you know? In 1961, in Denmark, a local pig gave birth to 34 pigs at a time (given that, on average, a pig gives birth to 8–10 cubs). For the construction of the ceiling will fit wooden blocks or building blocks. The lower part should be treated with lime, and the upper part should be sheathed with insulating material. You can use the attic to store feed and various equipment. In this case, you need to make a hatch and install a ladder under it.
The roof is also made of durable roofing materials (slate or sheets of galvanized metal) that can protect the room from cold and moisture.
The entire internal area of the barn with the help of partitions is divided into separate aviaries. Partitions can be made of wood or metal, but this material must be durable and easy to disinfect.
For the purpose of disinfection, all partitions are treated with lime. In the future, whitewashing is repeated several times a year to prevent diseases and maintain cleanliness in the stable.
Read about the most effective way to fatten pigs at home.
It’s not enough to just build walls. The room for keeping animals should be properly equipped, organizing a "home" environment.
Feeding troughs and drinking bowls
If you offer pigs open food troughs, they will arrange a real mess around them. This will be a waste of food and a potential health hazard, as food can then become moldy and also attract various insects and rodents.
The output in this situation are devices that automatically feed. In such feeders a large amount of food is placed, but it is served in portions. The meal is comfortable, and at the same time pigs do not step into the feed with their feet.
If you do not have funds for such equipment, you can make ordinary wood feeders. But do not forget to fix them on a small elevation from the floor so that they can not be moved. And so that the animals do not spoil the edges of the wooden feeders, they must be covered with a thin metal sheet. In doing so, make sure that no dangerous sharp edges remain.
Learn how to make and install pig drinkers on your own.
Automatic nipple drinkers also do their job well. They are durable, comfortable. The water supply device itself is made in the form of a metal nozzle (valve-nipple). The valve is activated only by pressing it. Through a small hole, water is injected directly into the pig's mouth. Thus, animals are provided with round-the-clock access to clean drinking water.
Pigs in their "home" need warm places, otherwise they will quickly become cold. It is customary to use straw or hay as litter. This raw material absorbs excess moisture well, slightly retains unpleasant odors and is easily disposed of. However, these materials quickly become unusable, so they need to be changed often.
Lay the deep litter in the following order:
- Disinfect the interior of the barn, and treat the walls and ceiling with lime.
- Fill the floor with insulating material (20-30 cm thick), then sprinkle the product with coprophages - bacteria that break down manure. When processing excrement, microorganisms generate heat, and the litter, respectively, heats the floor.
- If straw or hay is unsuitable, lay the next thickness of the biomaterial (approximately every three weeks).
Pigs kept in a closed building must be protected from drafts. It is important to ensure good ventilation. In summer, ventilation is carried out using open windows, but if the farm contains a lot of individuals, you need to equip the supply and exhaust ventilation. The system can be shaft, roof, transverse, diffuse or tunnel.
In a small room, two large ventilation grilles at the end of the building and one hood (exhaust shaft) can help clean the air and keep pigs cool in the summer. For large livestock complexes, it is recommended to increase the number of ventilation grilles and add a couple of exhaust shafts.
Rapid growth and full development of piglets is possible while ensuring a long daylight hours (at least 12 hours), so you need to take care of proper lighting in advance. An ideal way out - alternate supply of natural and artificial light. When using artificial lamps, make the light not very bright.
Important! In the event of an unexpected outage, the company must provide battery lights.
Special equipment for the removal of manure must be present at each pig farm.
It can be:
- Self-alloy system . Today it is the most popular equipment. With the help of plugs and pipes, waste products are transferred to a special container. Machine tools with pigs should be located under a slight slope.
- Water flushing is a durable but expensive equipment. Suitable for small farms. Cleaning in this case is carried out using water.
- Delta – scraper system. This device effectively scrapes waste products with special shovels.
In the warm season, the microclimate in the pigsty is provided to the greatest extent by the outdoor climate and maintenance work. In the process of life, adults produce quite a lot of heat.
Heating for pigs is only required in the harsh winter months (to maintain optimal internal temperature). For this purpose, you can make a stove or other types of heating. It is advisable to use electric heaters only in small rooms.
As for how to insulate the pigsty from the inside, this can be done with the help of fiberboard and glass wool.
The crib should be systematically cleaned up (cleaned of dirt and waste products, close holes in the floor, renew the insulation material) and disinfected. It is preferable to carry out disinfection 2 times a year (for example, in May and in September).
To cope with harmful bacteria in the indoor air, prepare one of the following formulations:
- freshly cut lime (10%);
- formalin solution (6%);
- chloramine solution (2%);
- hot composition of sodium hydroxide (4%);
- hot composition of soda ash (5%).
Important! Before all events, wear protective clothing, goggles and gloves, and cover your nose and mouth with a gauze bandage. Pigs for the duration of the procedure must be taken to the territory of walking. Run pigs into the room only after thorough ventilation.
How to make a pen for pigs
Briefly about the nuances of the construction of a summer corral. For its construction on several individuals, wooden boards from hard rocks (for example, cedar), nails and wooden poles are useful. Choose the sizes according to the dimensions of the pets. Deepen the poles into the ground by 20-40 cm, then nail boards to them.
The gaps between the boards and stakes directly depend on the size of the animals. The fence must be wear resistant enough to support the weight and strength of pigs. If financial opportunities allow, instead of wooden bars, it is advisable to use metal poles. Galvanized mesh panels are also ideal for erecting fences.
Did you know? Piglet need pigs for loosening the soil in order to look for food in the soil.
The total size of the pen will depend on how many pigs you have. The ideal height of the fence is at least 150 cm. During the cold season, pigs sleep, cuddling close to each other. But when it gets hot, the animals will want to have more free space. Therefore, having decided to raise pigs on a pasture-type farm, plan at least 5 sq. M for one individual. m
Outdoors, animals are doubly in need of protection from unpredictable weather. Provide shelter in which the pig can hide from rain and snow.
Вот ещё некоторые нюансы, о которых не успели рассказать выше:
- Свиньи инстинктивно создают себе отдельные зоны для повседневной деятельности. Поэтому им нужно предоставить место для приёма пищи и воды, зону для сна и место для дефекации, причём между этими зонами должно быть достаточно места для свободного перемещения животных.
- Ёмкости для корма и воды желательно размещать в разных углах помещения. Такое расположение будет способствовать развитию свиней — сельскохозяйственным животным нужно передвигаться, чтобы стимулировать мышечный тонус и развитие костей.
- У свиней есть привычка уткнуться мордами в почву. Владельцу поголовья нужно следить за отверстиями, которые животные проделывают в грязи, и заполнять их по мере необходимости. Особенный контроль нужен за отверстиями возле ограждений загона, поскольку ямы могут стать причиной «побегов», а также падений и травмирования животных.
- Независимо от того, где вы будете держать своих питомцев, убедитесь, что двери, заборы и ворота являются надёжными и прочными. Периодически контролируйте их целостность.
- Прежде чем купить свиней, изучите особенности породы, чтобы затем обеспечить соблюдение правил содержания и выращивания.
В заключение — чертежи свинарника на 2, 10, 50 и 100 голов, чтобы вы могли ознакомиться с особенностями каждой планировки.
Изложенное выше руководство в полном объёме применимо к крупным животноводческим хозяйствам. Если вы пока нацелены только на мини-свинарник (сарай для свиней на даче), то данные рекомендации можно смело отнести к фермам с небольшим поголовьем.