Detailed description and characteristics of strawberries

Today it is rarely possible to meet a garden or a personal plot on which there would not be a bed with strawberries. And this is understandable - few people remain indifferent to juicy and sweet aromatic berries, whose pulp is the source of a large number of vitamins, minerals and useful substances, so necessary for the body of adults and children. Thanks to the fruitful work of breeders, this culture has long been able to grow in almost any weather and climate conditions. All this makes strawberries widely popular among experienced gardeners, and among beginners in this matter.

Strawberry - berry or fruit?

Many people wonder what really is a strawberry - a berry or fruit.

To find the right answer, you should understand the definition of each of the options:

  1. By the term “fruit” is meant a fruit having a juicy pulp that can be eaten.
  2. Berry - is only one of the modifications of fruits with a large number of seeds.

In general, differences in concepts have more everyday meaning. It is believed that berries are always smaller in size than fruits. However, the statement is not always true. For example, you can recall tomatoes that are vegetables, but technically have all the signs of berries.

Did you know? The largest strawberry is grown by Japanese gardener Kyoji Nakao. The diameter of the fetus reached 30 cm, and weight - 250 g.

Strawberries have seeds on the surface, which means it has nothing to do with berries (fruits, respectively, too), it is called a false berry. But the dry fruits that grow on its receptacle (seeds) are nuts. That is why, according to the teachings of botany, strawberries are nothing more than polysyllabic nuts.

Description and characteristics of the culture

The name "strawberry" takes its roots from the Old Russian language and has the meaning of "ball" or "round." The plant itself belongs to the flower department of the herbaceous class of dicotyledons, of the order Rosaceae, the family pink. This culture belongs to the genus of strawberries.

Beneficial features

The value of strawberries lies not only in the high taste characteristics of juicy and sweet pulp, but also in the ability of the fruits of this culture to enrich the body with useful substances and prevent many ailments. The composition of berries contains:

Find out what are the benefits for the human body from eating strawberries.


  • Vitamin C - strengthens the immune system, accelerates wound healing, normalizes metabolism and the removal of toxins from the body;
  • B vitamins (B1, B2, B9) - normalize the work of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, affect the digestive tract, improve the condition of the skin and hair;
  • E - normalizes the activity of the cardiovascular system, accelerates the elimination of toxins and positively affects the condition of the skin;
  • K - provides normal blood coagulation and is responsible for bone health;
  • N - an important participant in carbohydrate and protein metabolism, improves the activity of the nervous system;
  • PP - stabilizes cholesterol, normalizes the functioning of the nervous and digestive systems.

In addition to vitamins, there are a number of macro- and microelements: Fe (iron), M (magnesium), Ca (calcium), Zn (zinc), Mn (manganese), P (phosphorus), I (iodine), Cu (copper), K (potassium), Na (sodium), as well as folic acid, which is especially necessary for the female body. Due to its rich composition, the systematic use of strawberries as a food improves immunity, increases appetite and stabilizes the digestive system.

These berries, having diuretic and diaphoretic properties, allow you to cope with edema and stagnation of water in the body, and also cleanse it of toxins. Also, strawberry fruits increase metabolism, which is especially important for various degrees of obesity, and are used in the treatment of thyroid diseases.

Important! Strawberries are allergenic products, and therefore it is necessary to eat them carefully and better combine them with fermented milk products.

Calorie content and composition

Strawberries can be safely included in the diet menu for weight loss - 100 g of the product contains only 41 kcal, which equals 175 kJ of energy. At the same time, the indicators of BZHU indicate that this product is a source of energy: the amount of protein in 100 g is 0.7 g, fat - 0.3 g, carbohydrates - 5.7 g.

Botanical Description

Strawberry is a short, squat bush with a height of 5 to 20 cm, on which white or pink inflorescences form, ripening into red berries. At the same time, each fruit contains a large number of small yellow seeds.

Color can vary from pale pink to red. The root system is quite developed, brown in color. The leaves have a complex structure and blunt teeth along the edges. The top of the fruit is crowned with a green stalk and leafy corolla on the stem.

Geography of growth

Strawberries are often found in the wild - especially in areas of Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Berries also grow successfully in the regions of Central Asia and Western Siberia. Thanks to the work of breeders, today a sufficient number of hybrid strawberry varieties that can grow at home in almost any climate have been bred, and growing this crop in greenhouse conditions allows you to get a crop year-round.

We recommend reading our electronic magazine about growing strawberries.


The strawberry yield indicator largely depends on the selected variety.

Also important factors are:

  • composition of the soil, climatic and weather conditions;
  • strawberry planting time (autumn planting brings less crop than spring planting);
  • the correct adherence to agrotechnical measures (watering, fertilizing).

Spain is recognized as the leader in terms of yield among European countries - in this state, productivity indicators reach 44 t / ha. America holds the world championship, which collects about 48 t / ha.

Strawberry average weight

The weight of the average berry is 25-30 g, however, these indicators, together with the appearance, shape and taste, may vary depending on the selected variety and the correctness of following agricultural practices.

Important! The mass range of one ripe strawberry fruit can differ by almost 30 times!


Due to the wide popularity of strawberries in many countries, breeders of the world are making efforts to develop new hybrid varieties that have such qualities as: resistance to climatic and weather conditions, increased yield, the ability to get an early harvest, and immunity to diseases.

Not only the characteristics of the varieties are modified, but also the berries themselves: color, shape, size. All this allows you to choose the best variety for any region and makes it possible to enjoy sweet berries anywhere in the world.

The most popular varieties of strawberries

Starting to choose strawberries, many gardeners are lost in a variety of varieties. Below are the most popular varieties of this culture, which are appreciated by gardeners from different regions.


It is a repairing type of large-fruited early-growing strawberry varieties. Early ripening allows you to collect the first fruits 45-60 days after planting seedlings. A number of distinctive characteristics of the variety favorably distinguishes it from others (for example, the possibility of bearing fruit on an unrooted mustache). Temptation is suitable for growing at home (in apartments or on balconies).

The berries of this variety are round-shaped, bright red in color, have medium and large sizes, their mass is 25-30 g. The flesh is juicy and dense, muscat notes are clearly audible in the taste. One bush can produce more than 20 peduncles, and yield indicators reach 1–1.5 kg per bush.


Refers to repairing varieties capable of repeated fruiting (up to 4 times) per season. Strong and tall bushes make it possible not to touch the berries with the ground. The leaves of the variety are oily sheen. Fruits are large, characteristic conical shape, with pink flesh. Weight varies from 40 to 60 g.

Albion is famous for its high resistance to diseases and yield indicators - depending on the climate and care procedures, one bush can bring from 500 g to 2 kg of berries. Among the shortcomings, low winter resistance is noted, which makes it suitable for cultivation only in the southern regions or in a greenhouse.

Queen Elizabeth 2

It is a repairing type of strawberry, capable of repeated fruiting in one season. A distinctive feature of the variety is large fruits, the weight of which can reach 60 g (one hundred gram berries are also found). The fruit is bright red, with dense and juicy pulp.

Check out the features of planting Elizabeth 2 strawberries.

Depending on the correctness of agricultural activities, the level of taste of berries can vary - from high to medium. The variety has good transportability and a long shelf life.

Mara de Bois

A strawberry of a repairing type, capable of bearing fruit more than three times per season. The bushes are low and compact, with dark green leaves and moderate moisture formation. Fruits are cone-shaped, with a bright red tint and an orange-red core. The berry weighs a little - no more than 20 g. Taste characteristics are high - the variety has a dessert flavor and a tangible aroma of strawberries.

Yields are average - up to 800 g per bush. Strawberries of this variety are characterized by medium transportability and high resistance to fungal disease. The winter hardiness of the Mara de Bois will require shelter in a mid-range climate.


Mid-early high-yielding variety of strawberries for universal use, from one bush you can collect about 1.5 kg of berries. The bushes are low, but strong, differ in the average number of leaves of light green color and round shape. The berries are heart-shaped and quite large in size, their weight can reach 40-50 g. The pulp is dense, fragrant and sweet, with a caramel flavor.

According to gardeners, it is possible to significantly increase the level of productivity through the systematic removal of mustaches. The ability to transport is also high - the berries do not lose their presentation even at low temperatures. The most suitable climate for Kimberley is continental.


The variety is a large-fruited super-early variety with high yields. In conditions of proper care, from one bush you can collect up to 1 kg of berries. Bushes of culture are tall and powerful, with strong peduncles. Fruits are cone-shaped or in the form of a scallop, dark red in color. The average weight is 40-50 g. The pulp of the berries is dense and juicy, without voids, universal purpose, the taste is sweet and rich. The winter hardiness of Marshmallows is high - provided the snowy winter, this strawberry can easily withstand temperatures up to –35 ° C.


It belongs to the classic early varieties, the fruiting of which occurs in late spring (in open ground) and has a duration of about 1 month. Bushes are compact, medium height. Leaves are small in size, dark green in color, with pubescence on the back side. Berries of a classical conical shape, bright red color. Weight is about 20 g.

The pulp is dense and juicy, aromatic and sweet. At the same time, taste characteristics grow when technical ripeness of fruits is achieved. Yields of Kama are high - from one bush you can collect 1 kg of berries (12 t / ha). Also, the variety is resistant to many fungal diseases (except gray rot and spotting).


An early variety of strawberries with large fruits, the weight of which reaches 100 g or more. Bushes are compact, but at the same time powerful and medium spread. The fruits are distinguished by a comb-shaped flattened shape, the color is red. The pulp is dense and juicy, with a pleasant and sweet taste.

The variety has high indicators of transportability, as well as a stable immunity to diseases. However, Mashenka should be protected from low temperatures, which lead to rapid spoilage and death of bushes, as well as from prolonged exposure to sunlight, which leaves burns in the form of dark spots on the leaves.


A mid-early variety of a repairing type, the fruiting of which can occur only once per season. The bushes are compact, but with high productivity - up to 1 kg per bush. The berries are bright red in color, with a classical conical shape, weighing 10–12 g. The pulp is dense and juicy, pink in color.

Did you know? Strawberries have 35, 000 genes, which is 10, 000 more than humans.

Victoria is characterized by high rates of transportability and a stable immunity to diseases. An unpretentious variety that easily tolerates temperature changes, an unfavorable climate and perfectly develops in conditions of high humidity.


Refers to mid-early varieties of a remontant species, with a long fruiting period and high productivity (up to 1 kg from a bush). Bushes are powerful and tall (13-15 cm), with a developed root system. The fruits of the variety are bright red and large in size - the average weight of one berry is about 60 g, but can reach 100 g.

The pulp is juicy, fragrant and sweet, light red in color, without voids. The level of transportability is average, however, this is offset by the high commercial appearance of strawberries. Marshall has high frost resistance, drought tolerance, and also immunity to diseases.

Features of planting and crop care

When starting to choose the optimal place for planting strawberries, it is worth considering that neutral loamy soil will be the most suitable soil, and the site itself should be protected from winds and drafts, as well as shading from buildings or trees (shrubs).

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Planting strawberry seedlings of a repairing type is possible both in the spring and in the autumn, and each method has advantages and disadvantages:

  • in spring, strawberry bushes are planted in a permanent place in the middle or end of May (at a time when there is no threat of frost return);
  • In autumn, the best time will be the end of August or the beginning of September (for the necessary rooting of plants before the onset of the first frost).

Spring planting will allow you to get the first crop only next year, and this time also does not suit regions with a cold climate. This explains why experienced gardeners often resort to autumn planting.

Planting strawberry seedlings can be done in several ways:

  • carpeted - bushes are planted at a distance of 20 cm from each other;

  • ordinary - plants are planted with an interval of 25 cm, row spacing - 70 cm.

After planting, strawberry care is to adhere to the rules of agricultural activities:

  1. Watering . Strawberries require frequent and plentiful watering, which will affect the quality and quantity of the future crop. Before the beginning of the flowering period, the sprinkling method is used, after - the introduction of moisture exclusively under the root of the plants. The permissible one-time volume of water is 10 liters per 1 m². The water used is not cold, the permissible temperature is + 20 ° C.
  2. Loosening and weeding . After each watering it is recommended to carry out loosening, which prevents the appearance of a crust on the soil and enriches the root system with oxygen. Also, once every few days, weed removal is carried out.

    Important! Mulching using straw or coniferous branches will help reduce labor costs for loosening and weeding weeds, and also maintain a constant level of soil moisture.

  3. Fertilizer soil . At least three times in a season. The procedure consists of spring top dressing, which is carried out after snow melts and is aimed at replenishing nitrogen deficiency in the soil (organic matter, such as mullein or nettle infusion, as well as complex mineral fertilizers are used). The second time fertilizers are applied during the flowering period, and the main emphasis is on fertilizer with potassium (you can use potassium nitrate, spraying with zinc sulfate or treating bushes with boric acid). The third time, top dressing is carried out after the second wave of fruiting with the use of potash fertilizers (potassium sulfate or potassium nitrate, wood ash, yeast).

What types of strawberry propagation exist?

There are several ways to propagate strawberries, each of which has features:

  1. The seeds . A rather complicated procedure, which, however, allows you to get absolutely healthy bushes and preserve varietal characteristics of the plant. It consists of several stages: soaking the seeds before sowing in melt water (in February), sowing seeds, obtaining the first seedlings, thinning the sprouts (at the age of two weeks), planting in a permanent place (early to mid-May).

  2. Mustache . An easier way, but requires a rejection of the second crop in favor of new bushes. In late July - early August, new beds are laid by laying out the first mustache of the strongest annual shrubs along the furrows of the first mustache. Initial rooting occurs within a few days, but for further propagation, only the first shoots are left, the rest are removed. At the end of August, a week before the proposed planting of new bushes in a permanent place, the mustache that binds them to the mother plants is cut off.

  3. By dividing the bushes . This method is usually used in case of acute shortage of seedlings or the need to move the beds to a new place. Материнскими кустами могут стать трёх-, четырёхлетние растения, с наличием 35–40 побегов, каждый из которых состоит из розетки листьев, верхней и боковых почек, а также придаточных корней — именно их и выкапывают.

Diseases and Pests

Кусты и плоды клубники очень привлекательны для насекомых, которые могут не только повредить растения, но и привести их к гибели.

Среди вредителей наибольшую опасность представляют:

  1. Земляничная нематода . Маленькие червяки, размером около 1 мм, которые, питаясь растением, приводят к скручиванию молодых листов и их деформированию. В процессе размножения численность вредителей растёт быстрыми темпами, что становится причиной ломкости куста и значительному понижению плодоношения. В качестве борьбы не существует препаратов, которые могли бы помочь избавиться от нематоды, а потому следует применять профилактические меры: высаживать только здоровые кусты рассады, применять правила севооборота, а при заражении, сразу же удалять кусты с участка.

  2. Strawberry mite . Вредители, которые приводят не только к усыханию фрагментов куста, но и к полному его уничтожению. При первых признаках поражения, кусты рекомендуется обрабатывать коллоидной серой, а также постоянно проводить профилактику в виде прогрева рассады перед высаживанием, а затем её замачивания в холодной воде.

  3. Aphids . Насекомые, которые питаются соком листьев и побегов растения. В качестве борьбы используется обработка пестицидами и народные средства, такие как настой чеснока или раствор из хозяйственного мыла и табака.

  4. Spider mite . Вредители, которые, опутывая паутиной кусты клубники, приводят его к усыханию и гибели. Для уничтожения насекомых, после сбора урожая проводится обработка с помощью инсектицидных препаратов.

Часто садоводы, выращивая клубнику, сталкиваются и с заболеваниями этой культуры:

  1. Fusarium wilting . Первое проявление можно заметить на листьях куста, которые по краям начинают усыхать. Далее цвет с зелёного меняется на бурый, а сам лист полностью отмирает. Растение начинает существенно отставать в развитии. В качестве превентивных мер рекомендуется придерживаться правил севооборота и высаживать только здоровую рассаду, корни которой перед посадкой следует замачивать в калийных солях гумусовых кислот. В случае заражения растения выкапывают и удаляют с участка (сжигают).

  2. Gray rot . Грибок, проявляющийся в виде светло-коричневых пятен на поверхности ягод и крупных бурых или серых пятен на листьях. Во избежание заболевания, все растения до периода вегетации обрабатывают в бордоской жидкости, а после сбора урожая опрыскивают «Азоценом».

  3. White spotting . Грибковое заболевание, которое проявляется в виде точечных пурпурных и бурых пятен на листьях кустов. В качестве лечения используется обработка бордоской жидкостью в начале весны и фунгицидными препаратами после сбора урожая.

  4. Powdery Mildew Заболевание, которое поражает листья и стебли кустов. Поражённые участки покрываются белым налётом, который через несколько дней трансформируется в бурые пятна. Поражение мучнистой росой в период цветения приводит к невозможности опыления, вследствие чего ягоды клубники приобретают неправильную форму и привкус грибов.

Harvesting, transportability and storage

Процесс сбора урожая клубники следует начинать за несколько дней до наступления периода технической зрелости, предварительно прекращая обильный полив за неделю. Лучше хранятся сорта, которые имеют плотную мякоть, без пустот и полостей внутри. Ягоды снимают с зелёными шапочками и хвостиками, а сам сбор проводят в утренние часы, после высыхания росы, или вечером, после захода солнца. Сразу при сборке, отбраковывают деформированные, помятые ягоды или плоды, поражённые плесенью.

Оптимальной тарой для хранения считаются деревянные или пластиковые ящики, дно которых устилают тонкой бумагой или тканью — в таких ёмкостях ягоды удобно транспортировать. В домашних условиях также подойдут пластиковые контейнеры с крышкой или стеклянные банки. Укладывают ягоды всегда в один слой. Для увеличения срока хранения (до 3–4 дней), сразу после сбора урожай необходимо охладить до температуры 0...+3°С.

Также читайте о том, как правильно хранить клубнику.

Благодаря плодотворной работе селекционеров, сегодня садоводы могут выбрать наиболее подходящий сорт для себя и условий своего участка. Высокая урожайность, прекрасные вкусовые качества, ранние сроки созревания и стойкий иммунитет к заболеваниям — вот основные характеристики современных гибридных сортов. Придерживаясь правил агротехнических мероприятий, каждый огородник сможет обеспечить свой стол вкусными и ароматными ягодами клубники.

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