Description of the smallest varieties of roses
Miniature roses are an excellent option for those gardeners who would like to admire these flowers almost all year round, and without leaving their homes. Despite the fact that they require more attention than standard indoor plants, the result is certainly worth it. What varieties are worth paying attention to when choosing and how to create optimal conditions for flowering in pots - this will be discussed in this article.
Names and descriptions of miniature varieties of roses
For the first time, miniature roses came to European territory from China as early as 1810, but they became widespread only after 1918, in which Dr. Rullet from Switzerland played an important role. It was she who first began to breed mini roses, thanks to which in our time breeders managed to get more than a dozen different varieties.
All of them are united by the following characteristics:
- bush height not more than 10–35 cm (for indoor floriculture);
- small, dark green leaves with a shiny surface;
- thin but durable spikes;
- small terry and cup-shaped flowers with a diameter of 1-3 cm (can be single or collected in inflorescences);
- long and plentiful flowering throughout the summer period.
As for the specific varietal variations, the following varieties are considered one of the most popular in home floriculture:
- "Green Ice Min" is a short plant with a height of 20-24 cm, with peaked buds, greenish-white. The color of the flowers varies from pure white to pale green, but all of them do not exceed 2–2.5 cm in diameter. Each flower has about 40–45 fragrant petals, which give the flowers a “terry”. The leaves of the plant are light green in color, leathery and shine well in the sun. The bushes are semi-spreading, so they do not always need to be connected. When all the conditions for the development of the rose are created, the flowering will always be plentiful, especially since Green Ice Min belongs to the winter-hardy varieties and is highly resistant to ailments.
- “Baby Maskerad” is a plentifully flowering variety represented by plants with shoots up to 35 cm tall. The cupped flowers are painted in rich yellow, smoothly turning into pink-red. The diameter usually does not exceed 4 cm, while in each flower there are about 30-40 petals, with a light and pleasant aroma. The leaves are leathery and glisten well in the light. The variety is winter hardy and tolerates drought well. Suitable for planting in pots, as well as for marking borders.
- "Daniela" is a relatively young French variety, bred only in the 90s of the last century. Compared to the previous ones, it is even more compact, because the height of its shoots does not exceed 20 cm. The flowers are large, rosette-like, with slightly pointed pink-colored petals. Flowering is very plentiful, and its feature is the almost complete lightening of flower petals towards the end of the season. “Daniela” can be grown not only as a pottery culture, but also for pragmatic purposes: for example, to create buttonholes, but do not forget that the variety is afraid of frost and requires shelter for the winter. To pests and diseases, resistance is much higher.
- "Coraline" - rose bushes grow up to 30 cm in height and differ from the rest in a long flowering period. Coral red flowers do not have a pronounced aroma, but at the same time, this does not prevent florists from using them in floral arrangements. The shoots of the bush are densely leafy, the leaves are oval, saturated green in color. "Coraline" has good resistance to disease and is characterized by high unpretentiousness in care, both when grown indoors, and when placed on balconies or terraces.
- Hummingbird is one of the old varieties of miniature roses, which was bred at the beginning of the XIX century. Compared to other varieties, its flowers seem even more unique, as they have a rich apricot-orange hue. The height of the bushes of these roses usually does not exceed 25 cm, the leaves are leathery, glossy, dark green in color. In inflorescences, 3-4 fragrant orange flowers are combined. Blossoming of a rose begins in the summer and lasts until late fall, until the first frosts strike. The Hummingbird variety is often used not only in indoor, but also in garden floriculture, using it to frame flower beds or create rabatok. Small roses often become the basis for wedding boutonnieres.
- Lavender Jewel is a stunted plant reaching a height of 15 cm. The pink-purple flowers of this rose are small (up to 3.5 cm in diameter), collected in inflorescences, slightly fragrant. Bushes look compact, densely leafy. Leaves are dark green, glossy. Flowering is plentiful. In addition to growing in pots, Lavender Jewel can also be useful for creating beautiful living borders, especially since it has high winter hardiness.
The advantages of small roses
In comparison with the usual large buds on long legs, miniature varieties of roses do not seem so impressive to many, but they also have a number of advantages that can convince of the suitability of planting.
Important! Given the small size of miniature roses and the relatively low density of bushes of many species, it is better to plant several plants at once in order to increase decorativeness in pots (provided there is a sufficient amount of nutrients).
- First of all, it is worth noting the following features:
- Dwarf varieties up to 45 cm high are always kept in compact groups. Their shoots do not spread on the ground, do not form arcs and do not require garter.
- Despite the small size of the sheet plates, their decorativeness is enhanced due to the large number and glossy, shiny surface.
- On different bushes there are fragrant flowers with a variety of shades: red, orange, yellow, pink, white and even green or purple. There are also varieties with a two-color color, which looks very unusual, but at the same time quite attractive.
- Some miniature roses are able to change the color of their flowers with age (for example, “Daniela”), and these changes can affect a completely unexpected color palette: sometimes the color changes from rich yellow to dark red.
- Most varieties are characterized by terry compact inflorescences, 3-15 flowers in each, which only gives the bush even more elegance.
- The blooming of mini roses is quite lengthy, and when optimal conditions are created, they will be able to enjoy their beauty from May until the first frosts, and this is only if you are not going to take the plant to the house for the winter. Potted roses often bloom even longer.
- If the shoots of crops planted in the garden during the winter are slightly frozen, then in spring they can be simply cut, without worrying about the abundance of flowering. It will not suffer from this in any way.
- When growing small flowers in the garden, you don’t have to fear the usual pests and diseases, because in comparison with large roses the mini-variant is more resistant to them.
As a pleasant addition to the list of advantages of mini roses, one can note the ease of propagation by cuttings, which in some cases often becomes the only way to get more plants.
How to choose in the store
By and large, the rules for choosing roses of low-growing varieties are not much different from the recommendations for buying ordinary ones, so in any case, the grower should consider the following:
- Always choose only healthy plants, without visible mechanical damage or signs of activity of diseases and pests.
- Never buy discounted bushes, even if at first glance they seem normal to you (no seller will work at a loss, which means that there are still questions for a specific instance).
- Carefully inspect not only the upper part of the flower, but also pay attention to the pot by looking into the drainage holes: they should not show the sprouted roots.
- The selected bush should have compact dimensions, but with a large number of buds, otherwise the opened flowers will not please you for long.
- The plant should not be ripened, because even if there are no traces of mold on it, it is likely that it will appear soon (the first sign is a grayish coating on the bottom of the pot or falling of the lower leaves).
- It is better not to buy bushes from the “new arrival” group on the same day. Wait a week to make sure they are viable (it is better to let a faint rose die in the store than at home at the buyer).
- If you buy a flower for your own needs, and not for sale, then pay attention to options that have been in the store for a long time and even managed to bloom. Confidence in such a rose is much greater, because it has already proved its viability.
- The leaves of fresh and healthy roses should be dense, shiny, rich green. Weak and withered leaf plates indicate irregularities in the care of the flower, which means that after transplanting from the transport capacity, it may die.
- If you trust the words of a particular seller, you can clarify the nuances of caring for the plant, and at the same time find out how long it has been on sale and what attention has gotten used to during this time.
Important! You can not put pots of roses on window sills, above hot batteries or next to other heating appliances. Excessive temperature and dry air will be detrimental to buds.
Given the small size of the plant, they can not be planted in areas with frequent accumulation of melt and rainwater. If possible, it is advisable to choose only elevated places, placing bushes on the southeastern slopes.
This will ensure optimal sun exposure: in the morning it will quickly dry the night dew, and in the afternoon it will not burn the leaves of the flower. Of course, this applies only to garden varieties of roses, because when planting in pots, you can move the plant to any suitable place.
When choosing a room, it is also desirable that it is located on the southeast or southwest side of the house, providing long-term natural illumination of flowers, but without burning sunshine.
As for the timing of planting mini roses, at home this procedure can be performed both at the end of February and throughout the spring months.
Before planting plants in pots, be sure to prepare nutritious and at the same time loose soil from 2 parts of turfy soil, 2 parts of humus and ½ part of sand. After mixing, the resulting substrate is poured with boiling water or steamed in the oven and only after that it is poured into the landing container.
All further actions are performed in the following sequence:
- Lay a layer of expanded clay or other drainage material on the bottom.
- Fill the pot with soil mixture, about 1/3 of the total volume.
- Spill the soil so that water begins to drain from the drainage holes (to prevent fungal ailments, it can be dissolved in Fitosporin liquid).
- Place the stem or adult rose in the center of the container and fill it with the remaining soil, leaving at least 1–2 cm to the edge of the container.
- Take the pot with seedlings to the windowsill of the southeast or southwest side and water regularly, adding liquid in small portions. If you are afraid of a possible overheating, then it is advisable to wrap the pot with white flower pots or ordinary foil. An earthen clod, dried in the sun, is first cooled, and then watered with water at room temperature.
If there is heavy soil on the site, then a mixture of peat, compost, ash and sand will help to fluff it up. As in indoor floriculture, the best time to complete the procedure will be early spring, so that during the summer the rose has time to fully adapt to a new place and calmly survive the winter.
Important! Roses do not fertilize immediately after transplantation. This procedure will have to be postponed for at least 2-3 weeks.
Growing and caring at home
Compared with many other indoor plants, small roses can be called more finicky in terms of care, requiring the gardener to take care of himself.
However, if you immediately arrange for them a suitable temperature, a proper level of lighting and humidity, ensuring further regular watering and timely top dressing, then any problems can be avoided. Let's take a closer look at all the requirements.
For roses planted in the garden, the correct choice of a place for further growth plays a greater role than for indoor copies, but even here you can’t let it go by itself.
The main things to remember:
- The optimum temperature values in summer are + 18 ... + 24 ºC, in winter (dormancy) - about + 8 ... + 15 ºC (depending on variety). In any case, one must not allow the root system to overheat, leaving the flower in direct sunlight or placing it next to heating appliances. Some varieties are able to tolerate an increase of up to + 32 ºC, but with prolonged exposure to such temperatures, flowering can suffer. Also, sharp temperature jumps will not be beneficial, so it is advisable to avoid them whenever possible.
- Lighting is bright but diffuse. Pots with flowers should be placed on the south and south-west windows, and in the summer they should be taken out into the open air, always covering from direct sunlight in the afternoon. The room in which the roses are located should be well ventilated, but at the same time protected from the cold wind and drafts.
- Moisture indicator . Excessively dry air causes drying of the leaves and the appearance of insect pests, so be sure to follow these values (they should not fall below 50-60%). In the hot season, you can spray a rose from a spray bottle, and once every few weeks arrange a warm shower for her.
If for some reason the necessary indicators in one room change, then you can always transfer the pot of roses to another room.
Find out which varieties of roses are among the most fragrant and fragrant.
Watering and fertilizing
Both indoor and garden varieties of roses have a high level of drought tolerance, so their watering should be rare, but plentiful (to the depth of the entire root system). The ideal time for moistening the soil is until 10 a.m. or in the evening, but before sunset.
Pouring water preferably under the root, avoiding moisture on the leaves of the flower. Under the sun's rays, non-dried drops of water begin to burn leaf plates, which does not affect the decorativeness of the rose in the best way.
Also, do not water roses at night, because if they do not have time to dry, then on cold nights they will become more vulnerable to some diseases: for example, rust or black spotting.
Regarding the regularity of watering, it is important to consider the rate of drying of the substrate and the age of the plant itself. Young flowers need daily watering, and in the future it can be reduced to 1 time in 2-3 days. The drying depth of the soil should not be more than 2-3 cm.
Water for irrigation should be soft, well-settled, without impurities of chlorine and other harmful components. In addition, it is important to take only warm water so that the root system of the plant does not experience stress. If you wish, you can mulch the near-stem circle with a layer of wood sawdust or peat, which will reduce the regularity of the liquid.
After watering, you can feed the mini roses with specially developed preparations for them, which necessarily include nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. For the first time, the plant is fed in early spring, immediately after removing the shelter. In the future, the regularity of the introduction of nutritional compositions is approximately 1 time in 2-3 weeks or after each flowering wave.
Important! If on the package with fertilizer there is an instruction to use it only for soil, then it is worthwhile to warn that the composition may get on the stem or leaves of the plant, otherwise they may get serious burns.
The first planned pruning of small roses is performed with the arrival of spring heat and is of a sanitary nature. После снятия укрытия (если таковое имелось), цветоводу нужно внимательно осмотреть кусты и удалить сломанные, больные и подмёрзшие побеги.
В дальнейшем можно выполнить и формирующую обрезку, одновременно прореживая кустик от лишних побегов (особенно растущих внутрь). На стебле должно остаться не менее 3 почек, а срез выполняется до почки, расположенной снаружи под углом 45°. Места срезов нужно обязательно припудрить толчёным углём.
В летнее время из куста роз нужно удалить все увядшие цветы, причём выполняют эту процедуру, одновременно захватывая 3 см стеблевой части, что спровоцирует пробуждение спящих почек и поспособствует более быстрому развитию бутонов.
Таким образом, поддерживается непрерывное цветение роз. В это же время можно удалить засохшие веточки и пожелтевшие листья.
Осень — время для второго этапа санитарной обрезки. В этот период удаляют больные и засохшие побеги, одновременно укорачивая здоровые, особенно если речь идёт о высаженных в саду розах. Перед зимой на веточках должно остаться не менее 5 почек, а обрезку проводят до почки, смотрящей наружу, чтобы новый побег не рос внутрь куста.
Сезонные особенности ухода за мини-розами зависят от того, где именно они произрастают. При выращивании в саду после осенней обрезки практически все растения укрывают агроволокном или засыпают слоем мульчи, чтобы побеги не вымерзли за зиму.
В домашних условиях такие мероприятия могут и не понадобиться, но некоторые сорта всё же стоит укрывать полиэтиленовой плёнкой и выносить на зиму в прохладное помещение, с температурой воздуха не выше +5…+12 ºC.
Также не стоит забывать о зимоустойчивых сортах цветов: вполне вероятно, что при выращивании роз «Бейби маскерад» или «Лавендер Джуэл» укрытие им вообще не понадобится. В этом случае можно оставить розы на холодном подоконнике, слегка увеличив продолжительность освещения.
Did you know? Аромат роз считается одним из самых сильных антидепрессантов, поэтому люди, которые его регулярно вдыхают, становятся доброжелательнее и открытие.
Вредители и заболевания миниатюрных роз
Учитывая небольшие размеры кустов роз маленьких сортов, неудивительно, что болезни и вредители быстро уничтожают их. В этом случае главная задача цветовода — не допустить заражения, в том числе и путём поддержки хорошего здоровья растения. Если же уберечь растение не получится, тогда лучше сразу знать, с чем можно столкнуться.
К самым распространённым недугам миниатюрных роз относят чёрную ножку и ржавчину, при обнаружении которых поражённые части срезают и сжигают. Оставшуюся часть куста желательно обработать одним из возможных системных фунгицидов — «Фитоспорином-М», «Ридомилом Голд» или «Фундазолом».
В профилактических целях весной растения обрабатывают трёхпроцентным раствором медного купороса.
В борьбе с ними часто используют инсектициды широкого спектра действия (например, «Фитоверм» или «Актару»), либо просто обрабатывают раствором хозяйственного мыла (200 г) и медного купороса (20 г).
При ответственном подходе к выращиванию миниатюрных роз проблем с ними будет не больше, чем при культивации высокорослых сортов. Главное — всегда поддерживать приемлемый для цветов уровень освещения, влажности и подходящие температурные значения.