Description of the best varieties for growing in the Urals
Today, potatoes are considered one of the most popular crops in the world, so they try to cultivate it in almost all climatic zones. The territory of the Urals is no exception, but often the crops in this area do not differ in quality and aromatic properties. The reason for this is the harsh climate, characterized by irregular precipitation. In this article you will get acquainted with the most unpretentious varieties of potatoes, and also learn how to grow them correctly.
The best varieties of potatoes for the Urals
Before cultivation in difficult conditions of the Urals, all varieties of potatoes undergo a thorough diagnosis, including new ones. During this process, agronomists study its resistance to adverse weather conditions, as well as sharp changes in the microclimate. This measure is mandatory, since in this zone most of the known varieties are difficult to take root and bear fruit.
Did you know? Potato appeared in Europe in the 16th century, but for a long time the plant was considered decorative. The proven nutritional value of tubers was only at the end of the 18th century, by the French agronomist and scientist Antoine Parmantier.
Early varieties of potato are those varieties that are able to produce full-fledged tubers within 45-60 days after planting material is planted. Thus, by the end of July, you can harvest a high-quality and fully ripened crop, ready for long-term preservation. Moreover, such potatoes are able to develop without additional shelter.
The following early varieties are considered the most adapted to the Ural zone:
- The governor is a plant of early ripening (45-60 days). The crop of the variety tolerates long transportation and is also resistant to potato cancer, late blight and golden nematode. The tubers are characterized by white flesh and red peel, as well as a high content of starches (about 15%). The Governor’s productivity is in the range of 20–30 t / ha, the average fruit mass is about 150 g;
- Vineta is a universal early ripening variety, capable of producing crops already 50 days after planting. Potatoes are small, about 100 g each. They are characterized by a yellow peel and a light yellow flesh. Vineta is characterized by high productivity (30–40 t / ha), but it does not have natural resistance to late blight pathogen;
- Lyubava is an early ripe culture, capable of bearing fruit already 60–70 days after planting. Ripe potatoes form about 100–150 g each, and the yield from 1 ha is about 50 tons. The crop is moderately susceptible to many fungal diseases, it also has a high amount of starches (about 17%), red peel and white flesh;
- Bullfinch - an early ripe potato, characterized by a light pink peel and a white core. The plant gives the first fruits after 40-50 days after planting. The fruits are small, about 80–90 g each, while the total yield of the variety is about 25 t / ha. Bullfinch is resistant to late blight, moderately resistant to golden nematode and specific viral ailments;
- Spring White is an early potato, with a growing season of 60–70 days. The productivity of the Spring Belaya is high, about 30–40 t / ha. The fruits are large, weighing 100–150 g. The flesh and peel of the potato has a uniform white hue, and about 16% of the starches are of the total weight. The plant is resistant to scab and other fungi, but does not have immunity against late blight.
Mid-season potatoes are an ideal choice for a difficult zone of the Urals. Such plants often mature in no more than 100 days, which makes it possible to obtain higher quality fruits, characterized by a high content of aromatic and flavoring substances. Such potatoes are ideal for home growing as well as industrial cultivation.
Did you know? The ancient Incas had their own deity, identified with potatoes. This is the so-called goddess Aksomama, who is an inspired potato tuber.
The most suitable of them are considered to be the following varieties:
- Crown - the plant gives the first fruits 70–80 days after planting. The tubers ripen together and are distinguished by a rich lemon peel and white pulp. The average weight of potatoes is 100–140 g, while the total yield is in the range of 20–38 t / ha. The crop has an average shelf life, is resistant to potato cancer, but does not have immunity against late blight and golden nematode;
- Lukyanovsky - potatoes with a delicate lemon tinge of pulp, yellow peel and a growing season of about 70 days. The yield of the variety is high, about 45 tons can be successfully harvested per hectare. The average weight of one tuber is 110–150 g. Lukyanovsky is highly resistant to late blight, scab, and also to the golden nematode;
- Aspiria - this potato is able to bear fruit 85–90 days after planting. The productivity of Aspiria is high, about 40 t / ha, fruits of uniform size and weighing about 80–120 g. The flesh of the potatoes is pale yellow in color, the peel is saturated yellow or lemon. Fruits are characterized by excellent taste indices, as well as resistance to cancer, golden nematode and conditional resistance to late blight;
- Effect - mid-early variety, capable of bearing fruit 70 days after planting. Its productivity is high, within 30–40 t / ha. Fruits are large at least 150 g each, they are characterized by white flesh and peel, as well as a high percentage of starches (up to 20%). The variety is resistant to scab and various viral ailments, has an average resistance to late blight;
- Bezhitsky - the plant is characterized by a uniform pink hue of the peel and white pulp of the fruit. Harvest matures amicably, 70–90 days after the start of active vegetation. Large potatoes, weighing about 100 g, average yield is 30–45 t / ha. Bezhitsky is characterized by a high content of starches (about 15%), as well as increased immunity against rhizoctonia and scab.
Universal potatoes often include those varieties that are able to meet the needs of both ordinary gardeners and large farms. Such plants are extremely resistant to various environmental changes, while being characterized by good productivity and excellent production characteristics.
Important! Potatoes for the Ural zone must have a vegetation period of not more than 120 days. Only in this case, it is possible to achieve complete ripening of the tubers, which affects their keeping quality.
Among them, it is best to pay attention to the following varieties:
- Luck is a universal early ripe variety; its harvest most often forms the basis of early potatoes. The first potatoes are reached already 65 days after planting. Luck can be distinguished by the dark peel of a lemon shade with red eyes, as well as white flesh. Its productivity is high, about 45 t / ha, the average weight of potatoes is in the range of 100–150 g. Fortune does not have natural resistance to characteristic diseases, and also has a low keeping quality;
- Spiridon is a mid-season variety with a growing season of about 100 days. Its harvest is distinguished by fruits of raspberry hue with yellow flesh. The yield of Spiridon is average, about 25 t / ha, while the fruits grow with a mass of 100-150 g. This plant is highly immune to the golden nematode, late blight, scab and rhizoctonia. The variety is multifunctional, it can be actively used to produce food products for table and technical purposes;
- Sante is a mid-early ripening plant that produces crops 80–90 days after planting. It can be recognized by a uniformly yellow peel and pulp of potatoes. The yield of Sante is about 30-50 t / ha, while the average weight of tubers is in the range of 120 g. Potato potency is average, it does not differ in resistance to late blight and scab;
- Lorch is a medium-late potato with a vegetative period of about 110–120 days. It is distinguished by a high starch content, up to 20% of the total mass. The tubers have a yellow peel and white flesh, as well as a bright and pronounced potato aroma. Lorch does not have a high immunity to late blight, scab and potato cancer;
- Nikulinsky is medium-late potato; it takes at least 115 days to ripen its fruits. The yield of the variety is average, about 30 t / ha, while the potatoes are large, weighing up to 150 g. They are distinguished by a high starch content (about 25%). The peel of the fruits of Nikulinsky is yellow, the flesh is white, of a uniform shade. Nikulinsky is resistant to specific viruses and late blight, but does not have immunity to scab and black leg.
The above listed varieties are not a gross exception when selecting potatoes for the territories of the Southern and Northern Urals. In this region, you can absolutely successfully grow dozens of varieties of potatoes. However, due to the rather variable climate of the region, the yield of such varieties will decrease slightly, in contrast to the biological norm.
Important! Zoned potatoes are only suitable for the recommended planting zone. Such varieties are adapted only to narrow climatic conditions and the soil regime of a certain zone.
Among them, special attention should be paid to the varieties:
- Zhukovsky Early;
- Svitanok Kiev;
- Fairy tale;
How to choose the right variety?
Today about 4 thousand various varieties of potatoes are known on the market, among which many are suitable for growing in almost any climatic conditions. This creates additional trouble for farmers, as not many are willing to spend several years on all kinds of experiments with potatoes. The Ural region is no exception, as the territory often cannot boast of extensive tracts for efficient farming.
Learn about the features of growing potatoes using Dutch technology.
In order to protect yourself from unnecessary waste of money, when choosing a quality grade, several rules should be considered. The first thing you should pay attention to is the climatic features of the growing zone. For a cold continental climate, characterized by sharp changes in atmospheric conditions, only frost-resistant varieties are suitable that can withstand prolonged drought.
If potatoes are cultivated in hot summers with sharp jumps in temperature, not only the frost-resistant and super-early variety, which can ripen in 40–50 days, will become the best, since at a temperature of more than 35 ° С tubers complete their formation. Next, you need to decide on the ultimate goal of using the future crop. There is fodder, table and technical potatoes.
Although they do not differ in appearance, their technical properties are different:
- Feed varieties contain an increased concentration of protein necessary for optimal feeding of domestic animals.
- Technical ones have a high starch content, which is important for their further processing, but do not have a bright taste.
- Dining rooms are characterized by a moderate starch content and a bright, rich flavor, so they are ideal for food purposes.
In addition, there is a universal potato, such varieties contain high aromatic and nutritional properties, as well as a lot of starch and protein. When choosing table varieties, it is important to consider the ripening time of the tubers. Early ripening varieties are able to produce the first fruits within 6-8 weeks after planting, this is important in a limited area, when there is a need for cultivation of green manure and other crops.
However, such potatoes are often not able to be stored for a long time, and its taste is less pronounced. In the case when you need to get a marketable tuber with high taste and nutritional value, mid-ripening varieties with a growing season of at least 90 days are sure to choose.
Read also what is the purpose of hilling potatoes, and how to properly carry it out.
Features of planting and growing
The general agricultural technique of growing potatoes in the Ural zone is practically no different from cultivating crops in other territories, but still has its own characteristics. They must be taken into account when planting a vegetable, otherwise achieving high yields will not be easy.
To do this, just adhere to the following recommendations:
- light loamy and sandy loamy soils with at least 2% organic matter in the composition are suitable for planting;
- the landing site must necessarily be fertilized with green manure in the fall, clover and other legumes are best suited for this;
- in the Urals, potatoes are planted no earlier than mid-May, when the average daily temperature reaches +8 ... + 10 ° С;
- before planting the tubers must be vernalized, without this the emergence of seedlings will last up to 20 days;
- plant the culture in a row method to a depth of 8 cm, with row spacing not less than 1 m;
- for full ripening of tubers, the furrows of the stands must be directed from the north to the south.
Features of potato care in the Urals:
|Type of event||Optimal period||Basic rules|
|Watering||In the phase of 7-10 leaves, during active budding, during the period of tuber mass gain||The procedure is carried out in the early morning or late evening, each bush is moistened with 12-15 liters of clean, decanted water.|
|Loosening and weeding||Carried out as necessary, after the appearance of weeds, as well as the day after watering or heavy rain||The depth of cultivation should be no more than 3 cm|
|Hilling||In the phase of 3 leaves, 20 days after the first procedure, before flowering, until the aboveground part closes||Around the bushes create small hills about 30 cm in height, if the bushes are planted densely, the rows can be combined|
|Top dressing||During budding, during flowering||In the budding phase, the bushes are sprayed with a mixture of 10 liters of water, 2-3 tbsp. l wood ash and 1 tbsp. l potassium nitrate. During flowering, the plants are treated with a solution of mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:13) with the addition of 2 tbsp. l superphosphate|
|Preventative treatments||14 days after emergence, and then every 14 days||Apply a solution of Penncozeb (400 l / ha) or Ditan M-45, (300-5500 l / ha)|
The Urals is a complex climatic region, but it is quite simple to grow a high-quality and rich potato crop within it. To do this, you need to correctly determine the variety, as well as study its needs in the most detailed way. Traditionally, the best choice for this territory is considered to be early ripe, frost-resistant potatoes, table or universal purpose. It is often unpretentious and by the end of summer can please large tubers.