Description and features of growing echeveria
Echeveria is one of the most beautiful succulents cultivated by man. It does not require painstaking care and specific conditions of detention, and in addition stands out for its original appearance and bright flowering. This plant successfully grows both in the wild under extreme conditions, and in homes and in household plots. From this article you will learn about the most popular varieties of eheveria, as well as the basic subtleties of its cultivation.
Echeveria belongs to the Tolstyankov family and has more than 150 species. This is a perennial herb with dense and juicy tissues that can accumulate fluid. This flower has almost no stem, or it is very shortened. Leaves, as a rule, of a grayish-green hue, depending on the species, can be with a pointed or rounded edge, grow from a basal rosette in several cascades. The average height of the plant is in the range of 10–40 cm, and the diameter of the rosette is about 15 cm.
Echeveria blooms in spring or summer. At this time, a long leafy peduncle forms on the flower, on which bright racemose inflorescences of orange-red or yellow-orange color develop.
In the natural environment, this plant is widespread in South and Central America, where it massively populates arid and rocky areas. In home growing it is used for decorative purposes when arranging pots or large table pots. In the southern regions, the species is often grown on open ground as an ideal complement to a stone garden, an alpine hill.
Important! Important! Echeveria is often confused with another succulent called juvenile. The difference lies in the fact that the young is a frost-hardy plant, for breeding it launches a mustache on which children are formed, and in addition, it does not have a stem at all, therefore the rosette of leaves grows directly on the ground.
Types and varieties of echeveria
Today there are a huge number of varieties of this flower. Among them you can find both large species and small ones that perfectly complement the potted composition of several houseplants. The following are considered the most popular among the varieties:
- Graceful - for this species a flat-shaped rosette is characteristic, from which small side branches-rosettes develop. The length of the outlet does not exceed 5–6 cm, the width is 2–3 cm. The leaves are ovoid in shape, the color is not pronounced, it can be either pale green or grayish-white - the edges of the leaves are clearly visible. The shape of the leaf blade is round, there is a spine at the top of the leaf. Echeveria gracefully blooms profusely throughout May-June. A branched peduncle grows on it, on which brushes with pink-red flowers and a yellow top are formed.
- Agave -like - the species is distinguished by a strongly shortened or completely absent stem. The adult specimen forms small bushy rosettes with green leaves, on the edge of which there are red-green inclusions. Leaves up to 9 cm long and no more than 5-6 cm wide, as a rule, have a triangular-oval shape, slightly pointed at the end. The plant blooms in late summer, it develops small flowers of saturated yellow color, collected in inflorescences up to 40 cm long.
- Derenberg - the plant has long creeping shoots on which rounded leaf rosettes develop up to 6 cm in diameter. The leaves are predominantly wide, scapular, about 4 cm long and 2–2.5 cm wide. Their color is predominantly light green in color, with a characteristic green gray coating. It blooms throughout April - June. At this time, small spike-shaped inflorescences up to 5 cm long develop on the flower; small bell-shaped flowers with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm, red-yellow shades are formed on them.
- Sizaya - forms small rosettes with a diameter of 6-10 cm. The leaves are small, up to 6 cm long, lanceolate, pointed at the end, usually a pale blue or grayish-blue hue. The stem is not expressed or completely absent. The plant blooms from mid to late spring. Flowers develop on the side of the plant, in the form of small racemose inflorescences of orange or yellow-orange color.
- Lau - at this flower rosettes with a diameter of up to 20 cm are formed. The leaves are large, about 6 cm long and 3 cm wide, white and pale green in color, covered with a thick waxy coating. The stem is not expressed. The plant blooms in spring and summer, forming a large brush of pale orange flowers with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm. This species requires special care, because it grows slowly and reacts sharply to any changes in the microclimate.
- The Black Prince is one of the most exotic representatives of Echeveria. It differs in small rounded rosettes with a diameter of up to 15 cm, consisting of dark green, almost black leaves. The leaf blade is elongated, lanceolate, with a sharp point at the end. The stem is absent. The Black Prince blooms in the spring and summer. The flowers are small, saturated orange hue, collected in racemose inflorescences on small peduncles.
- Bristly (setose) - this echeveria has a small shortened stalk, on which a large spherical rosette grows. Its large shovel-like leaves are formed up to 9 cm long and not more than 3 cm wide. They are closely adjacent to each other, practically merge. The color of the leaves is green or gray-green, numerous small setae are located on their surface. Flowering is observed in spring or in the first half of summer - long peduncles 30 cm long appear on the plant, on which racemose inflorescences with red-yellow flowers with a diameter of up to 1 cm develop.
- Purple - has a thick, very short stem, on which sits a spherical rosette up to 15 cm in diameter. It is formed by fleshy broad leaves, refined on the edge, with a characteristic sharpening at the end. The color of the leaves is olive, on top of the main color there are various inclusions of purple. It blooms in spring or early summer, the flowers are red or orange-red, collected in brushes on small peduncles.
- Purpusorum is one of the smallest types of echeveria. Forms small rounded rosettes with a height and diameter of about 6-8 cm. The leaves are small, about 6 cm long and 3 cm wide. They are characterized by a triangular shape with a distinct sharpening on the edge, as well as an olive, green-gray color interspersed with a red-brown hue. The plant blooms in the second half of spring, bright red-orange flowers bloom on peduncles up to 20 cm long.
- Humpback - flowered - has a small dense stem on which a spherical rosette with a diameter of up to 15 cm develops. It is assembled from small, flat, rhomboid leaves. Their color is quite unique: green prevails in the upper part of the plant, which gradually, until the basal zone, transforms into pale pink. Flowering of the species begins in the second half of spring, flowers of a saturated, light red color are collected in small inflorescences on peduncles up to 20 cm long.
- Pearl von Nuremberg - the main highlight of the plant can be called pointed leaves of pale brown color with pink highlights, about 6 cm long and up to 3 cm wide. They form a small rosette up to 15 cm in diameter. The stem is very shortened, almost not pronounced. The species blooms in the second half of summer, to this period small orange-red flowers on red peduncles grow on echeveria.
Features of cultivation and care
It is not difficult to grow echeveria at home on the windowsill - it does not require special conditions of detention. However, in order to get a healthy flower, as well as to achieve long-term flowering, it will not work to sit back, as the plant needs an appropriate temperature and water regime.
Conditions of detention
Like other succulents, this home flower loves warmth and direct sunlight. Accordingly, the southern window sill is most suitable for echeveria. At the same time, the duration of daylight hours should be at least 12 hours. The optimum temperature indices for this species are in the range of +22 ... + 25 ° С.
Did you know? Plants belonging to the group of succulents do not have common ancestors or a history of origin - they are only connected by habitat conditions, due to which succulents have developed the ability to accumulate water. Therefore, they can be found even among families such as aroid, bromeliad and grape.
Watering and feeding
The plant tolerates drought very well, so water it moderately, because excessive moisture can cause decay of the roots of the echeveria. Humidify the plant in small portions and only after the soil has completely dried to the bottom of the tank. In summer, the flowerpot is watered once every 10-14 days, in winter - even less often, as the substrate dries. For irrigation it is necessary to use only clean and well-maintained water at room temperature.
The flower does not need to moisturize the air, as it tolerates dry air, but excessive moisture in the atmosphere can inhibit the plant.
Important! Washing the roots during irrigation is dangerous for echeveria. To avoid this, a small stone or several small stones should be placed near the root zone of the plant.
The plant should be fed during active vegetation, from early spring to the end of summer. The procedure is carried out once a month, together with the next watering. For top dressing, a variety of complex preparations for succulents are used. Such fertilizers should contain potassium, phosphorus and sodium in equal parts and be enriched with trace elements.
Echeveria successfully propagated both by seeds and parts of the stem. Flower seeds should be sown in late February. The best substrate for their germination is a mixture of equal parts of peat and sand. Sow the seeds should be at a depth of 2-3 cm, then cover the germination tank with glass or polyethylene. After germination, at a temperature of +20 ... + 25 ° С, in the phase of 2-3 leaves, the flower can be dived into a separate container.
Video: Echeveria propagation
An alternative to seed propagation is cuttings. The procedure is carried out in early March. As apical small rosettes and leaves can serve as cuttings. Cuttings should be planted in well-fertilized and moistened sandy soil (a mixture of equal parts of sand and peat or compost). At a temperature of +22 ... + 25 ° C for 2 weeks, the shoots take root, after which they are dived into a permanent pot.
Pest and Disease Control
Most often, this succulent is affected by root and mealybug, nematodes, root and stem rot. This not only reduces the decorative value of echeveria, but can also gradually lead to the death of the plant. Therefore, it is worth fighting against ailments even at the first stages of their development.
Spraying the worm and nematodes can be helped by spraying the flower with the preparations Aktelik (1 ml per 1 liter of water), Fitoverm (2 ml per 1 liter of water) and Aktara (1 liter per 10 liters of water). Processing plants is carried out twice, with an interval of 14 days. Preventive spraying is performed once every 1.5–2 months.
To get rid of rot, echeveria must be treated with a complex fungicide. The most effective among them is the drug Fitosporin (5 g per 10 liters of water), it is used twice, with an interval of 14 days. For preventive purposes, the drug is used 1 time in 2 months.
Did you know? One of the first who proposed the use of chemicals to control insects was the ancient Greek scientist Aristotle, who described the effect of sulfur on small pests.
Useful Care Tips
It is not difficult to grow up a healthy and flowering echeveria, but not many flower growers have decoratively valuable specimens.
Therefore, when growing a flower, you must adhere to such recommendations:
- in winter, it is better to keep the flower at a temperature of +6 ... + 8 ° C, otherwise excessive heat in combination with a lack of sunlight will lead to the stretching of the plant;
- after flowering of the echeveria, it is necessary to create a dormant period, at which time any effects on the plant should be minimized, and watering should be reduced;
- in summer, the flower must be taken out to fresh air, while it must be protected from drafts;
- it is not worth shading the plant, otherwise this will lead to its stretching and blanching of the foliage;
- the microclimate in the area of the flower should be stable, with minimal fluctuations throughout the day;
- trimming of the echeveria is carried out as necessary - to remove dead leaves and only in the early spring.
Such succulents are also grown at home, such as:
Echeveria is perfect for both beginners and experienced gardeners. It does not require increased attention to itself and for a long time can do without watering. Today, there are many varieties of this flower, characterized by a diverse color. And so that the decorativeness of the plant is maintained for many years, he needs to create the optimal microclimate, and also not to forget about timely top dressing.