Description and features of the cultivation of cherries varieties Krupnoplodnaya
Krupnoplodnaya sweet cherry is popular among gardeners due to the large size of the berries and their quality indicators. This feature is far from the only advantage of culture. Read more about this and growing rules below.
Variety selection history
Large-fruited cherries were bred in the 70s of the last century in the Ukrainian Research Institute of Irrigated Gardening. The authors of the variety were Ukrainian scientists M. T. Oratovsky and N. I. Turovtsev.
The culture was obtained as a result of pollination of the Napoleon variety by a combination of sweet pollen Valery Chkalov and Elton Zhabule.
Did you know? Cherry berries produce green food coloring.
Already in 1983, large-fruited cherries were included in the Ukrainian register of varietal plants. Culture quickly spread throughout Ukraine and other countries of the former Soviet Union. In Russia, cultivated in the Southern and Central regions.
The height of a tree of this variety can reach 4-5 m. The crop is characterized by a high growth force.
The shape of the crown is spherical. Oblichnost and thickened shoots average. Skeletal branches are strong, thick. The bark is brown, smooth. The leaves are large, pointed at the ends, serrate at the edges. Painted in deep green.
Large-sized flowers, five-petalled, umbrella-shaped. Fruits are formed mainly on bouquet shoots and annual growths.
The berries are large, wide-rounded in shape, weighing from 10 to 18 g. The peel is dense, dark red, almost black. The flesh is cartilaginous, juicy, is also painted in intense red color. The bone is easily separated from the pulp. The taste of berries is sweet and sour, refreshing.
The study of its basic characteristics will help optimize its work on growing and caring for cherries. The late varieties of cherries also include Napoleon. Before proceeding with the preparation of the site and the search for planting material, you should familiarize yourself with the endurance of the variety in relation to cold, drought, disease and pests.
Drought and winter hardiness
The culture has a fairly high moisture resistance. Worse plants tolerate too high soil moisture.
In rainy years and with high irrigation intensity, the quality of the crop decreases - the fruits become watery, do not accumulate enough sugar and crack.
But, this applies only to adult, fruitful specimens. Young seedlings do not tolerate cold. In this regard, trees need to be planted only in the spring.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening period
Plants enter the fruiting phase already 4 years after planting. Flowering begins late and depends on climatic conditions. So in the south, trees can bloom in April, and in a temperate climate only at the end of May. The main condition for entering the flowering phase is the average daily temperature + 15 ° C. The culture is self-infertile. To obtain a crop, several pollinator trees with similar flowering periods should be planted next to Large-fruited cherries.
- The best pollinators for the variety in question:
- Large-fruited yellow and pink;
Important! In the absence of pollinator plants, no more than 10% of the berries are tied to the Large-fruited cherries.
The fruits ripen in late June - early July, depending on when the flowering began.
Productivity and fruiting
The culture is characterized by a consistently high regular fruiting without periods of downtime. From one tree you can annually collect from 44 to 56 kg of the crop.
Disease and pest resistance
The plant is highly resistant to diseases and parasites. However, to maintain this quality, it is necessary to comply with all the rules of agricultural technology and carry out prevention. The culture has genetic resistance to moniliosis.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Based on the characteristics of the plant, the following advantages can be distinguished:
- high regular yield;
- good commercial quality of the fruit;
- high resistance to diseases and pests;
- genetic resistance to lesions of moniliosis;
- resistance to drought and frost.
The only drawback of the plant is self-infertility.
The fundamental factors affecting the survival rate and development of trees are the choice of suitable terrain and preparation for planting. In addition, special attention should be paid to the selection of planting material.
Recommended Dates and Choosing the Right Place
Cherry of this variety is quite large, so it needs a spacious area. One tree should have an area of at least 4 m.
It is important that the terrain is well lit and not drafty, so you should give preference to southern, southeast or southwest areas.
Due to the poor tolerance of waterlogging of the plant by the plant, it is necessary to preselect a place where the occurrence of groundwater will not exceed 2 m.
Krupnoplodnaya sweet cherry develops best and bears fruit on loose well-fertilized soils. Ideal in this regard are loams and sandstones. But, far from all areas, the soil has the necessary qualities. The situation can be corrected by introducing additional elements into the soil, which will increase its aeration qualities and enrich it with nutrients.
Another important indicator is acidity. It should be neutral - within 5-6 pH.
Did you know? Fresh cherry fruits have an analgesic effect on the human body.
As already described above, Krupnoplodny seedlings have low resistance to temperature extremes. In this regard, the landing is best carried out in the spring, even in the southern regions.
They are manipulated until the kidneys swell, from mid-April to the end of May, depending on the weather. This approach makes it possible for the agrarian to fully trace the process of survival and vegetation of the plant after planting.
In addition, over a warm period of time, seedlings will have time to adapt to the climatic conditions of a particular zone and acquire a certain immunity to the onset of cold weather.
Six months before landing, the site must be prepared. It is cleared, cultivated to a depth of 30 cm. After that, it is disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate of 3% concentration.
On heavy soils, another 10 kg of sand and peat are added to the first option. Immediately after fertilizing, digging is carried out once again to a depth of 30 cm.
Selection and preparation of planting material
It is better to buy seedlings of the considered sweet cherry and pollinating plants in nurseries that offer planting material adapted to a specific climatic zone. Best instances of one-year and two-year-olds take root.
The main rules for choosing cherry seedlings:
- Pay attention to the condition of the stem - its height should be at least 1 m and not more than 2. The trunk is aligned, smooth, without cracks, growths and signs of damage by pests or diseases. One-year-old specimens of lateral branches should not be present at all, and two-year-old specimens should have from 3 to 5 skeletal shoots at least 35 cm long.
- Inspect the plant rhizome - it should consist of 3-4 large roots covered with many additional ones. Check the elasticity of the root processes - a well-moistened, not dried up root freely lies in a ring around the finger. If such manipulation is impossible, it is better to refuse the purchase.
- Be sure to inspect the surface of the vaccine - it is located at a distance of 5 from the rhizome, looks like a slight bend on the stem. At this point there should be a healed trace from a rootstock cut. If the site is fresh, then the plant is infected with a fungus, so you should immediately stop buying such material.
Did you know? One tree produces 113 kg of oxygen per year.
Just before planting, seedlings must be properly prepared. The main manipulations are carried out with the roots. In any case, when excavated before selling, transporting and storing, they get injured and dry out.
The optimal planting pattern for the crop in question is 4 × 4 m, you can even 5 × 5 m. Pits are prepared a week before planting. The depth of the hole is 80 cm, the width is 1 m.
Learn more about the features of planting sweet cherries in spring.
A top layer 40 cm high is mixed with 20 kg of compost, 100 potassium sulfate and 200 g of superphosphate. The bottom 40 cm of soil is transferred to another place on the site. Received nutrient soil fill the hole by a third, then drive a stake, and pour 20 liters of water.
Landing is carried out as follows:
- In the center of the pit, on the south side of the stake, a cone-shaped embankment is constructed from nutrient soil.
- On this embankment, the root system of the seedling is installed, gently straightens.
- Next, alignment along the root neck is carried out by increasing or decreasing the embankment - the place of grafting after filling the pit with soil should be 5 cm above the soil.
- Further, the pit is filled with soil.
- After filling the hole, the soil in the near-stem circle is compacted.
- At a distance of 20 cm from the stem, a circular ditch is formed, with a depth of 10 cm, into which 20 l of water is poured.
- After the subsidence of the soil, the missing layer is added and mulching is carried out with compost to a height of 5 cm.
- The stamp is tied to the stake.
Further plant care
A month after planting, plants need to be watered. Young non-bearing specimens take from 20 to 40 liters of water. Until the time of fruiting, they are watered once a month. If there is enough natural precipitation, then less often.
Fruiting trees contribute moisture according to the schedule:
- at the stage of kidney swelling;
- after flowering;
- 3-4 weeks before the fruit fully ripens.
An adult plant needs about 60 liters of water at a time.
Important! After each watering, be sure to loosen the trunk circle and row spacing, followed by mulching the soil with compost. This will protect plantings from stagnant water and the spread of fungal diseases.
Fertilize the trees begin with 3 years of life on the site. Further feeding is carried out every 2 years. At the time of swelling of the kidneys, in parallel with the first watering in water, I add 6 tbsp. l urea or nitrofoski.
After 2 years, instead of mineral fertilizer, 60 liters of water will need to add 10 liters of liquid mullein. Immediately after flowering, 60 kg of compost and 1 kg of wood ash are added to 60 l of water. This top dressing is not replaced after 2 years, but is also carried out. In the fall, around mid-October, 200 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate are added for digging. After 2 years, the minerals are replaced with 10 kg of compost and 10 kg of rotted manure. Organics are also brought in for digging.
Pruning this tree needs only support and sanitary. The crown is formed independently.
Diseases and Pests
The considered variety of sweet cherry is not recommended to be treated with chemical preparations without special need. It is very rarely attacked by pests and affected by disease.
Learn how to deal with sweet cherry diseases.
The main work of the agrarian should be aimed at prevention, which consists in the following points:
- Cleaning the site in the fall from fallen leaves, fruits.
- Digging in spring and autumn of the near-trunk circle to a depth of 15 cm, row spacing to 20 cm.
- Timely fertilization and adherence to the irrigation schedule.
- Treatment of wound surfaces after sanitary scraps with 1% solution of copper sulfate followed by sealing with garden var.
- With a long rainy period, dusting on a sheet and soil with wood ash.
If it happened that the pests attacked the cherry, use the Inta-Vir, Actellik or Aktara preparations according to the instructions. If lesions are noted by the fungus, then from chemical protection, "Mancozeb" is used according to the instructions. It has a high ability to suppress most fungal strains.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Harvesting is carried out as the crop ripens. Take the fruits from the branches along with the tails. Immediately laid out in boxes of wood or plastic. It is best to stack the products in no more than 2-3 layers, overriding them with paper. This will allow you to keep the quality of the berries longer.
When stored in a refrigerator, cherries retain their quality for 20 days. The products tolerate transportation well, which makes it profitable for commerce. Also, cherries of this variety are good in various culinary interpretations and winter preparations.
Did you know? Cherry wood is used for the production of carpentry veneers and parquet. So, if there is a dried tree of this species on the site, you should not rush with its disposal.
The main advantage for which farmers appreciate the Krupnoplodnaya cherries variety is the quality of the berries. In addition, the culture has a high resistance to diseases, pests and undemanding care.