Description and description of tomato varieties for greenhouses in the suburbs
Under the conditions of an unstable temperature and humidity regime characteristic of the Moscow Region, it is possible to harvest rich tomato crops only from hybrids. They are advantageous for their stamina to adverse climatic changes, as well as strong immunity to common pathologies of solanaceous crops. Find out which tomato varieties to grow for outdoor cultivation and a greenhouse in 2019 from the article.
What varieties of tomatoes are best planted in the Moscow Region, based on the climate
Despite the fact that the Moscow Region and the nearest Baltic Sea are separated by 650 km of distance, the Moscow Region was influenced by moderate air masses from the Atlantic. Cyclones, excessive cloud cover, and variable atmospheric circulation often occur on this territory. As a result of these specific climate features, spring is early or late, summer is always dry and wet, and winter is harsh and warm.
Important! If the temperature in the greenhouse is below + 10 ° C, disinfection of all surfaces, as well as equipment with an aqueous solution of laundry soap, is required. Sharp temperature fluctuations, early cold and prolonged winters - all these conditions do not contribute to high yields and early ripening of tomatoes, so local gardeners prefer the greenhouse method of growing, in which you can provide the crop with the necessary level of heat and moisture. However, if the economy does not have a shelter structure, you can smash a tomato bed in the garden. But in this case, you need to choose the most hardy zoned varieties.
Due to its high cold and heat resistance, it has been popular since 1966. The plant is ripe, reaches a height of 75 cm. It is a medium-leaved bush with developed roots and branched stems, which forms about 5-6 inflorescences.
Ripe fruits appear approximately 3.5 months after sowing the seeds in the greenhouse. In open ground, vegetation is delayed for another 15–20 days. Red vegetables weigh about 100 g and have high commercial and taste qualities: round without pronounced ribs, thin skin, juiciness and meatiness.
Subject to agricultural technology of vegetable growing, from each square meter on a tomato bed, you can collect about 8 kg of the crop of this variety. It is used in fresh and canned forms. The variety shows moderate resistance to fungal and bacterial infections.
Read more about the features of growing tomatoes "White filling".
These are early ripe, determinant tomatoes, developing in a bed without shelter up to a maximum of half a meter. The bush is characterized by thick and strong stems, dense dark green foliage, simple inflorescences, from which 5-6 ovaries are formed.
The growing season lasts 100-110 days. Ripe fruits weigh no more than 65 g. They are suitable for transportation and can be kept fresh for a long time. They are characterized by an oval shape, elasticity, rich red hue, juiciness, not cracking skin. The yield of the hybrid does not exceed 7–8 kg / m². Such tomatoes can be used fresh, as well as for all kinds of homemade preparations for the winter. Their feature is a pleasant sour-sweet taste.
Did you know? In Europe, tomatoes were regarded as deadly plants and they were grown exclusively for decorative purposes. The history of the United States of America even included the fact that opponents of George Washington tried to poison him with a dish of tomatoes.
A distinctive feature of this large-fruited low-growing variety is a poorly developed root system, which does not allow the stems to grow above half a meter. As a result, they easily adapt to sharp fluctuations in temperature and moisture. The fruits do not crack or bake in the sun. Among the main advantages of the variety are high resistance to pathogens and putrefactive infections.
Friendly fruiting begins about 120 days after sowing. With proper care from the bush, you can collect up to 5 kg of vegetables. They are characterized by delicate scarlet color, flattened round shape, dense skin, fleshiness, juiciness and sweet taste. They weigh on average about 170 g, some giants can reach 250 g. In the cellar, the harvest is kept fresh for a long time, which is why in cooking it is consumed in most cases for salads and vegetable cuts.
Super early frost-resistant grade of semi-determinant type. It is characterized by a strong rhizome, thick stems about 120 cm high. It develops well in conditions of excessive dampness, and is resistant to various fungi and rot.
Vegetation lasts no more than 85 days. Fruits are round with a slight flatness, bright red, weighing about 150 g on average. Under the concomitant increase in weather conditions, up to 20 kg of crop can be harvested from each square meter of the bed. It is recommended for whole preservation and fresh salads. The lack of hybrid gardeners call intolerance to drought and heat.
Did you know? Tomatoes went into cooking only after an unsuccessful suicide attempt by retired Colonel Robert Johnson. Disappointed in the justice of the American courts, he tried to poison a large crowd with a bucket of ripe tomatoes.
Varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses in the suburbs
High-yielding hybrids of the first generation (marked with the F1 icon) are ideally suited for polycarbonate shelter structures in the climatic conditions of the Moscow Region. When choosing seed material, it is important to pay attention not only to the manufacturer, but also to the type of branching of the crop, which determines the place, time of planting and caring for plants.
This is an indeterminate variety whose stems can reach 3 m in height. The bush branches strongly, requires pinching the stepsons and garter. With stable heat and moderate humidity, its yield is about 20 kg / m². Abundant fruiting lasts for the whole season. With increased dampness, the yield is significantly reduced, but the plant shows high resistance to late blight and other common nightshade diseases.
The first ripe vegetables weighing up to 150 g can be plucked 130-140 days after emergence. They have a pleasant sweetish-sour taste, depending on the subspecies are yellow, red, pink.
The elastic pulp and non-rigid peel allow you to transport the crop over long distances, as well as use for any culinary preparations (pickles, marinades, canning, fresh salads, pickles, juice, sauce).
Important! At the initial stages of greenhouse cultivation of tomatoes, when daylight hours do not last longer than 12 hours, additional illumination of plants is necessary. Lack of light leads to inhibition of growth, elongation and fragility of seedlings. In this case, the first brushes will appear not on the 7-8th sheet (as it should be), but on the 13th .
The medium-sized hybrid of the determinant type is characterized by well-leafy branchy shoots that grow to a height of one and a half meters. Because of this, timely garter and removal of stepsons is important (each brush is attached separately to the support). Red roundish tomatoes appear in 101–107 days and weigh about 140 g, are distinguished by the density and smoothness of the skin, fleshiness and excellent taste.
In application, this variety of tomatoes is versatile. Under favorable agricultural conditions, more than 4.5 kg of crop can be removed from each plant. It is important that the density of planting seedlings does not exceed 3 seedlings per 1 m². If you grow a hybrid in the garden without shelter, its yield will decrease significantly. The advantage of the variety is its high immunity to fungi, bacteria and harmful insects.
Learn more about growing Blagovest tomatoes.
An early variety of determinant type. Its stems develop upward within 35-60 cm, are characterized by power and good immunity. The plant quickly adapts after transplanting seedlings and does not require tying. For better fruiting, top dressing is desirable.
The first tomatoes ripen 105 days after sowing. They are characterized by a red-pink color, a round flattened shape, an average weight of 60 g, fleshy flesh and a thin, non-cracking peel.
Harvest is universal in application. Under favorable growing conditions, up to one and a half kilograms of ripe fruits can be removed from each bush. Gardeners consider the main advantages of the variety to be good tolerance of drought and the possibility of cultivation in residential conditions. Among the shortcomings noted increased sensitivity to fertilizers (especially at the stage of formation of the bush).
Important! For the abundant fruiting of mid-season tomatoes of a semi-determinant type, they must be stepsoned in a timely manner. If the procedure is carried out as in determinant varieties, the plant will form an ovary early and together.
This is a mid-ripe productive variety, which is distinguished by friendly and early fruiting (the entire crop is tied almost at once). The stems of the bush develop to a height of 160-170 cm and branch well.
The growing season lasts 124–135 days. Fruits come in different sizes, but weigh on average about 100 g. It is characteristic that the first tomatoes, tied in the root zone, reach 300 g in weight and about 14 cm in diameter (their number on the bush can vary between 4-6 pcs. ), and the rest are very small.
A bull’s heart bears fruit in dark raspberry oval vegetables with juicy fleshy flesh, thin skin and a sweet taste. With proper cultivation from one bush, you can collect up to 12 kg of the crop in the greenhouse and up to 5 kg on the open ground. Among the shortcomings of the hybrid, vegetable growers note its sensitivity to the pathological environment, the amount of fertilizer in the soil, as well as the risks of early termination of fruiting. Did you know? The largest tomato in the world was grown by an American farmer in Wisconsin. A fruit resembling a small watermelon weighed about 3 kg.
Among the undersized tomato varieties popular in the Moscow Region, this variety has gained recognition among gardeners due to the impressive size of its fruits. They differ in rich scarlet color, meatiness, insignificant amount of seeds and average weight in the range of 600-1500 g. These tomatoes are not hybrids, therefore, suitable for harvesting planting material. After sowing, harvesting can be planned after 115 days.
The maximum shoot height reaches 65 cm in open ground and about 100 cm in a greenhouse. The advantage of the variety is its adaptability to saline substrates, and the disadvantage is its vulnerability to pathogenic microbes and fungi. Harvest of pink honey is poorly stored and transported. It is recommended to consume it fresh as soon as possible or process it into juice, sauce, pasta.
Learn more about the characteristics of rose honey tomatoes.
Varieties of cherry tomatoes for the greenhouse
Cherry tomatoes are low and tall. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the crop depend on this, since plants of a determinant type are characterized by earlier periods of fruit ripening than of an indeterminate one.
In greenhouse conditions, this variety develops to two meters in height, growing a densely branched bush, the foliage of which is largely similar to potatoes. Ripening begins about 110 days after sowing. Ripe tomatoes are characterized by a regular pear-shaped, bright orange color and a sweet taste. Experts say that in the sugar contained in the pulp, this variety is in the lead and therefore is the most delicious among other varieties.
On the branches no more than 15 fruits weighing about 35 g are formed. If you grow a crop according to the two-stem type of pinching, you can get up to 2 kg of fruits from it. They are often consumed raw, less often canned, processed into sauces and juice. The advantages of the variety are excellent taste, and adaptability to drought and cold. Among the shortcomings, gardeners call the need to install a support, remove stepsons, increased requirements for soil moisture.
Find out also what varieties of large-fruited tomatoes to choose for greenhouses.
The hybrid is characterized by high productivity and early fruit ripening. From the time of sowing the seeds until the appearance of red juicy fruits, 100 days are required. The bush is highly branched and grows up to 2 m in height, so it necessarily requires support, as well as pinching.
Under favorable growing conditions, up to 15–20 fruits are tied on flower brushes. They have a sweet taste, small size, rounded shape, saturated red color and weight within 35 g. From each square meter of tomato beds, you can collect up to 5 kg of ripe vegetables. They are recommended to be used fresh, as well as for full-bodied seals.
Did you know? In the Ukrainian cities of Kamenka-Dneprovskaya and Tsyurupinsk, monuments to the tomato were erected.
This is a medium-sized shade-tolerant hybrid with increased resistance to fungal and putrefactive infections. Its peculiarity lies in miniature cherry tomatoes weighing about 20 g of dark cherry color.
The plant develops according to the indeterminate type, and its branches in the greenhouse reach a height of 2 m. Harvest can be harvested 120 days after planting. It is used fresh and canned, more often for decorating culinary dishes. The uniqueness of the Black beach variety also lies in abundant fruiting: up to 40 fruits are formed on inflorescences, and about 3.5 kg of ripe vegetables can be removed from each bush.
The variety is characterized by miniature and decorative bushes. The plant is a medium-leafed stem of a determinant type, stretching up to a maximum of 30 cm. The first inflorescences appear at the level of the 5-6th leaf, the brushes densely cover the stems, forming at intervals of 1 leaf plate. It takes 3 months to ripen the crop.
The fruits are small, round, red in color, with an average weight of about 25 g. With proper care, no more than 1.5 kg of vegetables can be removed from the stem. They are often used for raw consumption, all kinds of home preservation.
It is typical that the taste of Pygmy tomatoes is influenced by external factors: at low temperatures and increased dampness, the crop will have the prevailing acidity, and if the plant is cultivated in abundance of heat and moderate soil moisture, the tomatoes will be juicy and sweet.
Among the advantages of the hybrid, gardeners note its resistance to fungal and bacterial infections, as well as the tendency of fruits to crack. The disadvantage is the low productivity of the Pygmy.
Important! Tomato fruits are practically not tied if the stalks poorly absorb nitrogen. This occurs, as a rule, with a lack of phosphorus.
The self-pollinated variety is considered one of the best varieties of cherry. It differs in the compactness of the bush, which develops to a maximum height of 30–35 cm, and early fruiting. Its vegetation lasts about 95 days.
Ripe fruits are characterized by excellent taste and decorative qualities. They are characterized by saturated red color, round shape, juicy dense pulp, elastic and thin peel, average weight within 36 g. Up to 2 kg of crop can be removed from each bush. The main advantages of the variety are early ripeness, productivity, compactness and decorativeness of the plant. Vegetable growers have not yet found flaws.
Features of growing tomatoes
For the successful cultivation of tomatoes of different varieties, you must follow the basic rules of agricultural technology: Learn also
- Sow high- quality grains in peat pots or tablets, having previously treated them with a solution of a growth stimulator (Kornevin, Ekosil). It is important to use a moist substrate prepared from equal parts of high peat, river sand, deciduous and sod land. Count on 2 seeds per tank.
- The optimal conditions for growing seedlings are good lighting (for 14-16 hours), temperature at + 20 ... + 22 ° C, weekly one-time watering, and top dressing with organic and phosphorus-potassium substances as necessary. For the first time, it is relevant 14 days after the appearance of sprouts.
- When the seedlings reach 30 cm in height, they are transplanted into the garden or in the greenhouse . The soil is pre-fertilized with a mixture of 4 kg of humus, 2 kg of peat, 1 kg of ash, 90 g of superphosphate (proportion is calculated for 1 m²). It is important that the earth warms up to + 14 ° C. Landing is carried out in holes with a depth of 15 cm according to the scheme 50 x 100 cm (the distance between the rows can vary depending on the characteristics of the branching variety).
- After transplanting, the culture is watered to the extent necessary, focusing on weather conditions. The land on the bed should not be petrified and waterlogged (optimally 2-3 times a week, in the morning, using settled warm water).
- Adult plants are preferably fed every 2 weeks, taking into account the peculiarities of their growth. For the first time, this procedure is relevant 7 days after transplanting seedlings. Fertilizer-sensitive varieties will grow well after watering with a solution of chicken infusion or mullein infusion (in a ratio of 1:15). Имейте в виду, что чрезмерное количество азотсодержащих веществ стимулирует развитие биомассы и тормозит процесс завязывания плодов.
- Для сортов с неограниченным ростом стеблей важно своевременное пасынкование и подвязка . Обычно кусты формируют с 2 или 3 центральными побегами, прищипывая их верхушки и боковые отростки. Такие манипуляции способствуют интенсивному плодоношению. Некоторые огородники обрывают нижнюю листву на сильно загущенных кустах, улучшая таким образом вентиляцию веток и аэрацию почвы.
- Через 2 дня после пересаживания рассады грядку нужно прополоть . Это позволит улучшить питание корней кислородом и очистит участок от сорняков. Процедуру желательно повторять в меру необходимости, а также после каждого полива. Спустя 2 недели после посадки саженцев на постоянное место проведите их окучивание.
Dates and basic rules for harvesting
Период уборки спелых плодов у ранних и поздних томатов отличается примерно 3–4 неделями. Некоторые разновидности плодоносят одномоментно, а другие — на протяжении сего сезона. В меру появления спелых овощей их срывают со стеблей. Обильное количество плодов консервируют либо перерабатывают на соко-соусную продукцию. Немногие помидоры пригодны для длительной транспортировки и хранения. Лучшим местом для этого является погреб или холодильник. Important! Помидоры рекомендуется сажать после бобовых культур, лука, капусты, огурцов. Из-за воздействия атлантических воздушных масс Подмосковье характеризуется специфическим климатом, поэтому к выбору огородных культур нужно относиться серьёзно. Одним из факторов успешного выращивания является правильно выбранный сорт.