Description and description of apricot Black Velvet

Black velvet is one of the rare varietal hybrids with unique features. He quickly gained his place of honor among experienced farmers, thanks to its high resistance to fungal diseases, frost and unusual taste characteristics. Read more about the hybrid varieties of apricot Black Velvet, read below.

History of breeding Black Velvet

The hybrid in question was obtained by crossing an American black apricot and cherry plum. The new variety was created in 1994 by G.V. Eremin and A.V. Isachkin at the Crimean Experimental Breeding Station VNIIR named after N. I. Vavilova. Due to the successful combination of the species features of the two mother cultures, the new hybrid quickly and very successfully passed the tests and in 2005 it entered the State Register of the Russian Federation. The variety is zoned in the North Caucasus region and in the suburbs. But, thanks to unique adaptive abilities, takes root in all areas.

Did you know? Apricot kernels can be a substitute for bitter almonds. Due to this, they found application in the manufacture of marzipan.

Description and characteristics of the variety

The life form of this plant is a tree growing up to 4 m in height. Crohn - round, slightly flattened. The shoot-forming ability of the tree is medium. The foliage is not too thick, painted in a saturated green color, has an elongated shape, pointed at the ends. Flowering is plentiful, it comes too late, which completely eliminates the risk of death of the ovary as a result of return frosts, even in the northern regions. The flowers are large-sized, painted white or pinkish. The fruits ripen in late July - early August, depending on the climate.

Giving a full crop plants begin from 3-4 years after planting. Apricots - small-sized, slightly elongated, with a pronounced abdominal suture, weighing 25–35 g. The skin is slightly pubescent and, upon reaching full maturity, becomes brown or dark purple. The inner cavity of the fruit is two-colored - the bone is bright yellow, pinkish as it approaches the skin. The taste is sweet, with pronounced sourness, slightly tart. The aroma is pleasant, characteristic for apricot.

The stone is small, almond-shaped, poorly detached from the pulp. Fruits collected slightly unripe can be stored for a very long time under certain conditions - about 3-4 months. In terms of use, they are universal. The yield of one tree per season is 50-60 kg. Black velvet trees are characterized by high frost resistance. They freely tolerate temperatures up to -45 ° C.

Learn how to grow an apricot tree from seed.

Due to this feature, it can be cultivated even in regions with risky farming. In terms of drought, the tolerance of the hybrid is comparatively lower than that of other varieties, so more attention will need to be paid to watering when grown in southern arid regions. Regarding diseases and pests, the plant shows extremely high resistance and is rarely affected even with a poor epidemiological situation in neighboring areas.

The hybrid in question is a self-fertile crop. This means that he does not need pollinators, but if it is possible to plant plants with a similar flowering period on the plot, the yield will increase significantly. Pollinators for this apricot variety can be cherry plum, plum or blackthorn.

Advantages and disadvantages

Information about the pros and cons of the variety should be well studied before planting. Knowing the weaknesses of the plant can be avoided when growing.

  • The main advantages of Black Velvet:
  • high productivity;
  • self-fertility;
  • unusual, decorative appearance of fruits;
  • excellent crop keeping and transportability indicators;
  • increased frost resistance and tolerance to major diseases and pests;
  • high adaptive abilities of culture;
  • unusual taste of fruits.

  • Among the minuses are the following:
  • lower tolerance of drought than yellow varieties;
  • poor separability of the bone from the pulp.

Did you know? Apricots have a pronounced regenerative effect on brain cells, which helps to improve memory and improve sleep quality.

Rules for planting apricot seedlings Black velvet

The agricultural technique of cultivating the variety in question is no different for other apricot varieties. The main event that ensures a high yield in the future is planting and preparation for it.

Timing and seat selection

Planting of Black Velvet is carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow processes. Autumn planting is not advisable in the middle lane and the northern regions, since the plants do not have time to settle down normally in a new place before the onset of frost, and in the southern ones due to snowy winters (the plant will suffer from overdrying, which will entail frostbite of the roots even at 0 ° C).

Criteria for choosing the area for growing Black Velvet:

  1. Soil - loam or sandstone is ideal. But such a composition of the soil is not in every area. If the soil is not suitable, then you will need to take care in advance to correct this nuance.
  2. Groundwater - the optimal distance to them is 2 m. If it is less, planting material is planted not in holes, but on the embankment.
  3. Soil acidity is a normal indicator of 5–7 pH.
  4. Lighting is plentiful. The ideal option is to place the culture on the south side of the site.
  5. Windiness - vegetation does not tolerate drafts, so it should be protected from the north from the wind.

Based on the foregoing, it is best to choose a hill near the outbuilding or fence. At the same time, the culture must be located on the south or southeast side. The most important thing is to indent from the structure about 3-4 m, so that the tree could not destroy the roots of the foundation.

Read also about how and what you can plant apricot on.

Preparing the site and seedlings for planting

Preparatory work must begin to be carried out in the fall. The first step is to clear the area designated for growing the tree from weeds, roots, stones and other debris. Next, carry out a deep digging - 30 cm for loam, sandstone, chernozem, at least 50 cm - for heavy soils. Immediately after cultivation, the site should be disinfected with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid.

After a week, add, under digging, to a depth of 30 cm (40 cm for heavy soil) for each m²:

  • for sandstones, loams and chernozem - 20 kg of manure and 600 g of wood ash;
  • for heavy soils - 20 kg of manure, peat, 10 kg of sand and 30 g of superphosphate.

In addition, for heavy soil it is recommended to cover the fertile soil layer with compost. To do this, lay a layer of 5 cm of compost, then pour it with soil from the plot with a layer of 2 cm. Such layers alternate 3 times. During the winter, part of the organic matter will have time to decompose, which will give the soil more looseness. In the spring, as soon as the snow falls, about a month before planting, the last preparatory stage of work with the soil is carried out on the site - for digging, 20 kg of compost and 30 g of superphosphate per square meter are brought to a depth of 30 cm.

If the winter was not snowy and the spring is predicted to be arid, watering is carried out - 30 liters of water are poured per square meter. 2 weeks before planting, a planting pit with a size of 80 × 100 cm is prepared. If it is planned to plant pollinating plants, then a distance of 4 m is left in the rows and between the trees. The upper 30 cm from the hole is mixed with 20 kg of compost, 10 kg of sand is added if necessary. The resulting soil mixture fills the hole to a third of the height, drives a stake, pour 20 liters of water.

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On this, all preparatory work with the soil is completed. Planting material also needs to be prepared before placing it in open ground. The first step is to examine the shoots and root system. All dried up areas are cut off. If crown pruning was required, all wound surfaces must be dusted with wood ash and covered with garden varieties. After pruning the roots, you need to soak them for 12 hours in a solution of the growth accelerator. Zircon is suitable - add 1 ampoule of the drug to 1 liter of water.

The process of planting young seedlings

Landing of planting material is carried out according to the following scheme:

  1. The seedlings are removed from the solution of the growth accelerator and placed on a dry cloth so that the roots “drain” and ventilate.
  2. A cone-shaped hill is being built in the landing pit.
  3. The plant rhizome is placed on an elevation, gently spread it, then align it so that after falling asleep the root neck does not appear under the surface of the soil.
  4. Carefully fill the hole with a soil mixture prepared by digging. The seedling is periodically shaken slightly, so that the soil settles harder and slightly compacted - this will avoid the formation of air cushions.
  5. After filling the pit, the soil in the trunk circle is thoroughly compacted, 20 l of water is poured and waiting for it to be absorbed.
  6. As soon as the liquid is completely absorbed, the soil will settle - you need to fill up the missing layer and mulch with compost.
  7. At the end of all manipulations with the soil, the seedling is tied to a stake using a soft tissue cut.

Apricot Care Rules

The farming technique of growing Black Velvet is quite simple. The main efforts in the care of Black Velvet will need to be made in the first three years after planting. The most important measure is watering, as the crop does not tolerate drought well enough. Particular attention should be paid to the humidification regime during cultivation in the southern regions, in the northern regions and the central strip a sufficient amount of annual precipitation falls, therefore the scheme here will be similar to that for other varieties of apricot trees.

Important! Seedlings in the planting pit should be located on the south side of the supporting stake.

Prevention and protection against pests and diseases

The culture is resistant to major diseases affecting stone fruits (coccomycosis, moniliosis, etc.), and is rarely affected by pests. But, in order to prevent, in order to maintain plants, it is necessary to spray with copper sulfate and wood ash. In the spring, before the kidneys swell, immediately after trimming, a solution of wood ash is used (1 kg of ash is added to 10 liters of water). Spraying is carried out on branches and soil around the trunk.

In the autumn period, in mid-September, the trees are sprayed with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. In addition, mandatory preventive measures are regular loosening of the soil in the near-stem circle with subsequent mulching and timely fertilizing. If it so happened that the plant was struck by a fungal disease, it is necessary to carry out treatment with the drug "Mancozeb" according to the instructions.

Among the pests on Black Velvet can breed:

  • aphids - dusting is used to control it on a sheet and soil with tobacco dust or wood ash;

  • scale shield - it can be eliminated by spraying with copper sulfate (1%).

Watering frequency

Trees under the age of 3 years are watered 2 times a month, introducing 10 liters of water. In the southern regions it will be necessary to moisten plants more often - once every 7-10 days.

Adult trees make water according to the scheme (consumption at a time 30 l):

  • during the period of kidney swelling;
  • immediately after flowering;
  • 20 days after the second watering;
  • 3 weeks before harvest;
  • in the middle of September.

In the southern regions, mature trees are watered on demand. The main thing is to stop watering the plants 2-3 weeks before the harvest.

Feeding scheme

Fertilize the soil in the near-stem circle from 2-3 years of life of the plant on the site, depending on the quality of the soil. On heavy soils, it is better to start top-dressing from the second year.

Did you know? Apricot pulp has a wound healing and antibacterial effect. It is this feature that Chinese healers have successfully used in the treatment of non-healing, festering ulcers.

The scheme is as follows:

  1. In the spring before the swelling of the kidneys - 30 g of urea to a depth of 10 cm (apply to moist soil, or dilute in water for irrigation). After a year, urea is replaced with organics - 5 l of liquid mullein is added to 20-30 liters of water.
  2. Immediately after flowering - spraying on a sheet and soil with a solution of wood ash (for 10 liters of water 1 kg of ash).
  3. In the fall, in mid-September - 90 g of superphosphate for digging into moist soil.

Cropping and shaping the crown

Apricot is a photophilous plant. With severe thickening of the crown, drying of fruiting branches is observed, therefore, the main task of pruning is to create a well-lit crown. The optimal formation option for the culture in question is a sparse-tier type with 5–7 main branches. The formation of the crown begins to be carried out from the first year of life of the plant on the site. If a one-year-old seedling has been planted, then it will not have shoots yet, so at this stage it will be enough to shorten the main conductor to 80–90 cm.

If there are already shoots on the plant, the main conductor is also shortened to 80–90 cm. On the trunk itself are left the 2 strongest branches growing at a height of at least 50 cm from the soil level, looking in different directions, and located at a distance from each other 15–20 cm. All other shoots need to be cut into a ring, and the remaining shoots should be shortened by 1/2. The main thing is that the central conductor always exceeds the skeletal branches by 20 cm in length - this condition must be observed throughout the life of the plant. In the second year, 3 more strong shoots are isolated on the trunk, shortening them to half.

Important! Perform all pruning manipulations with a sharp garden tool that is disinfected with alcohol. At the end of the manipulations, be sure to cut the slices with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, and cover them with a garden var.

On the branches left last year, 2-3 year-old growth is left (these will be second-order branches), the rest of the vegetation is cut off. Left branches of the second order shorten up to 2-3 buds. In the third year, 2-3 more branches of the first order are left on the trunk (a total of 7-8 shoots of the first order in 3 years). On branches of the first order left last year, 2 year-old growths are distinguished, they are shortened to 2 buds, the rest of the vegetation is cut off. In the same way form the third skeletal row.

In the fourth year, the central conductor is transferred to the closest lateral branch of the first order. It is cut right at the junction with this branch. At the end of the forming pruning, in subsequent years, only support is performed. It involves the removal of all shoots that are competitive first order. This can be done throughout the growing season so that the crown does not thicken and the plant has more forces left to form the ovary.

Winter preparations

Preparing trees for winter begins in mid-September. At this stage, watering is carried out for the last time. 2 days after wetting, the earth is dug up in the near-stem circle as deep as possible, but so as not to damage the roots. After 2 days, superphosphate (100 g) was added to a depth of 10 cm. Then the soil is mulched with a layer of compost 10 cm high. The trunk is whitened to a height of 1 m. Trees up to 3 years old are wrapped in agrofibre or burlap.

Learn how to warm apricot trees for the winter.

Harvesting and storage of crops

Collect fruits manually. Immediately put in wooden or plastic low boxes in 2-3 layers, no more.

To keep the fruits fresh for 3-4 months, you need to provide them with the following conditions:

  • lack of light;
  • temperature +2 ... + 10 ° С;
  • humidity 70%.

Fruits are well suited for canning, making juices, mashed potatoes, liquors and sauces. Apricot Black velvet is perfect for growing in different climatic conditions, for which gardeners fell in love. It is unpretentious in care and has good resistance to most diseases of stone fruits.

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