Description and characteristics of the varieties of watermelon Ataman

Sweet and large watermelons are a favorite treat for many adults and children, and Ataman is considered one of the best types of this culture. The fruits are unpretentious in care, have large sizes and excellent taste characteristics, so they are often grown on large and small land plots. This article presents the characteristics of the Ataman cultivar, methods of growing a crop, the rules for planting it and recommendations for caring for plants, as well as tips for collecting and storing the crop.

Description and characteristics of the variety

Watermelon Ataman has gained popularity among gardeners due to its high taste, large fruit size and early ripening. The pulp of ripe berries contains many useful elements - vitamins B, C and PP, folic acid and organic acids.

Important! Calorie content of fruits is only 27 kcal per 100 g, so they can be included in the diet even during the diet.

The main characteristics of Ataman watermelon are listed below:

  1. The variety belongs to early ripening. Fruits ripen 40–45 days after planting watermelon seedlings and only 65 days after sowing seeds directly into open soil.
  2. The bush is large and has a fast growth rate.
  3. On each plant, up to five oval striped berries of an elongated shape are formed.
  4. The weight of one watermelon is 12–16 kg. Outside, it is covered with a smooth and elastic dark green peel with light stripes.
  5. The pulp of the fetus is colored in a bright bright red color and has a granular structure. It is juicy and sweet due to the presence of 7% sugar in its composition.
  6. With proper care of plants, from 1 m² you can collect about 2.2 kg of fruit.
  7. The variety has a stable immunity to Fusarium and Anthracnose, and the fruits are well tolerated and well stored.

Some gardeners grow on their sites a Dutch hybrid of this variety - Ataman f1 watermelons. It differs from the Ataman variety by a more stable immunity to diseases, the same plant size, as well as the friendly ripening of one-dimensional and sweet fruits. Up to 2 kg of watermelon pulp can be consumed per adult per day, and for children under 3 years old - no more than 100 g.

We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the features of growing different varieties of watermelons:

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Advantages and disadvantages

Compared with other varieties of watermelons, the Ataman variety has a number of advantages that encourage gardeners to make a choice in his favor.

  • The main benefits of the fruit are listed below:
  • early harvest ripening;
  • pronounced taste, excellent yield indicators;
  • attractive presentation of berries;
  • the possibility of growing crops in a greenhouse and open ground;
  • immunity to common diseases;
  • good keeping quality;
  • excellent transportability while maintaining an attractive appearance.

Watermelons of this variety have several drawbacks, but they are insignificant compared to a long list of fruit benefits.

  • The main disadvantages of berries include:
  • the need for regular watering;
  • the size and taste of the fruit depends on the weather conditions of the growing region;
  • seeds obtained from ripe Ataman watermelons are not suitable for planting, because they do not preserve the above characteristics of the variety.

Optimal conditions for growing

The highest crop yields are achieved only if there are certain conditions for growing plants. These include - choosing the right site or creating the right microclimate when planting a watermelon in a greenhouse.

Did you know? To make the storage of watermelons more convenient, a Japanese farmer from Zantsuji, in 1981, developed a variety of cubic fruits.

The homeland of the striped berry is southern Africa, which is characterized by a dry and hot climate, so it is necessary to plant a plant taking into account the following requirements:

  • a sufficient amount of sunlight or artificial light - in the shade, watermelons grow poorly and the fruits will be small, and their flesh will not pick up enough sugar and lose its bright taste;
  • comfortable air temperature during the vegetation of the plant is in the range of +25 ... + 45 ° С, since the culture does not tolerate frosts at all and dies when the temperature drops to +5 ° С, and as a result of a long stay of the plant at +15 ° С and fruit formation slows down;
  • air humidity of 50-60% - this condition is important for successful cultivation of a crop in a greenhouse, since at low humidity the plant begins to wilt, and at high humidity it can rot;
  • loose and light soil - sandy soil, which passes air and water well, is best suited, and in a too moist clay soil, the plant will begin to rot;
  • neutral soil acidity - too acidic or alkaline soils have a detrimental effect on the roots of the striped berry and can cause the appearance of diseases or pests;
  • good predecessors - it is recommended to plant watermelon where root crops, cabbage and perennial herbs were grown last year, and pumpkin and solanaceous crops are considered bad predecessors for the plant.
Re-planting Ataman watermelons in the same area is possible only after 6-8 years.

Cultivation methods

Watermelon Ataman can be grown in an open area or in closed ground. Planting striped berries in a greenhouse is recommended for regions with insufficiently warm and long summers. For areas with a favorable climate, growing plants in an open area, under bright sunlight, is more suitable. At the same time, the seeds can be sown immediately in the soil or pre-grown seedlings on the windowsill.

Learn how to plant a watermelon properly at home.

The second option allows you to get the first berry crop three weeks earlier, therefore it is used more often. Regardless of the chosen method of cultivation, it is necessary to observe the timing of sowing seeds and adhere to the technology of planting, observing the necessary interval between plants. In more detail about the methods of planting Ataman watermelon - later in the article.

Seedling method

Sowing seeds for growing watermelon seedlings of this variety is carried out in small containers. After the green seedlings are sufficiently strong, they are transplanted into a greenhouse or an open area. Choosing this method of growing Ataman watermelons, you need to sow the seeds at the right time, provide the young sprouts with proper care and transplant them to a permanent place at the appropriate time.

Landing time

From seeds sown at the right time, you can get strong sprouts, which by the time of transplantation will reach the desired size and well rooted in a permanent place. If sowing is done too early, then at the time of seedlings transfer to the soil they will be overgrown and will transfer this procedure much worse. A late planting of seeds will not allow you to get an early crop of fruits. The timing of planting seeds on watermelon seedlings depends on where this crop will be grown in the future.

Did you know? In addition to the pulp, the peel of the watermelon is also used in cooking - candied fruit, jam and jam are prepared from it.

Therefore, sowing is carried out:

  • for a heated greenhouse - in the first decade of March;
  • for an unheated greenhouse - at the end of April;
  • for an open site - in the first decade of May.

Landing technology

Regardless of the selected method of growing a crop, the procedure for sowing seeds for seedlings is standard. But it must be borne in mind that it is very undesirable to disturb small watermelon seedlings with a transplant, therefore it is better to immediately place planting material in peat pots or other individual containers of small sizes.

If you properly prepare watermelon seeds for sowing, you can significantly increase the percentage of their germination

Step-by-step instructions for sowing seeds for seedlings are presented below:

  1. Inspect planting material and discard spoiled seeds. Then soak them in a bowl of warm water and a growth stimulator for about half an hour.
  2. Prepare individual cups with a diameter of 10 cm and a height of up to 12 cm. The volume of each container should be at least 300 ml.
  3. Fill the containers with a substrate consisting of garden soil, peat and humus, mixed in the same ratio.
  4. Place 2-3 watermelon seeds in each cup, deepening them into the soil by 3 cm. After emergence, the strongest stem is left, and the rest are removed.
  5. Sprinkle the soil with seeds in water, and then place containers under glass or film. Put the future watermelon seedlings in a well-lit place with an air temperature of +25 ... + 30 ° C. The shelter is periodically raised for ventilation.
  6. When the top layer of the soil dries, it is sprayed with warm water.
  7. When, after about a week, from the moment of sowing, green shoots appear, the containers are freed from shelter.

Video: planting watermelon seeds for seedlings

Seedling Care

In order to grow strong watermelon seedlings, which successfully adapt in a constant place after transplanting, you need to provide her with proper care. To do this, it is enough to create suitable microclimate conditions for young shoots, providing them with sufficient moisture and fertilizers.

Important! Ataman seedlings need to be protected from drafts - they can cause withering and death of seedlings.

The basic rules for the care of Ataman watermelon seedlings are listed below:

  • put the cups with sprouts in a well-lit place - the daylight hours for them should last at least 12 hours, and when there is not enough sun, seedlings are placed under artificial light sources;
  • to make the small sprouts appear stronger, they are transferred for 1.5 weeks to a cool room (+17 ... + 18 ° С), and then they are kept at +22 ... + 25 ° С;
  • seedlings should be watered moderately and only with warm water - at the same time, overmoistening of the soil should not be allowed, and water should be carefully poured under the root of seedlings;
  • 10-12 days after the emergence of seedlings, you need to feed them with complex mineral fertilizers dissolved in warm water;
  • 7-10 days before transplanting into the ground, the hardening of the sprouts begins - for this they are taken out for 1 hour on a balcony or street, gradually increasing the time the seedlings are in the fresh air.

For good growth, watermelon seedlings need light and heat

Planting seedlings in the ground

By the time the watermelon sprouts are transplanted to a permanent place of cultivation, the soil temperature should be at least + 12 ° C. At this point, the seedlings are usually around 30 days old, and each seedling has 5-6 leaves. The exact timing of planting seedlings in the soil depends on the method of growing crops and climatic conditions of the region. Seedlings can be transplanted into the greenhouse in the second half of May, and seedlings are usually planted in open ground in the first ten days of June.

Hardened seedlings are more resistant to unstable weather conditions in open ground

Step-by-step instructions for transplanting Ataman watermelon sprouts into a greenhouse are described below:

  1. Prepare the soil in the greenhouse. To do this, remove the top layer of soil with a thickness of 25–30 cm and add a mixture of humus and hay, as well as ready-made nitrogen-containing fertilizers, into the formed recess.
  2. Pour the soil with fertilizers with hot water and lay on top the removed soil layer.
  3. Dig holes about 70 cm apart. The depth of each of them should be about 10-12 cm.
  4. Carefully remove the seedling from the individual container with the earthen lump and immerse it in the hole.
  5. Sprinkle its roots with loose earth to the very top. Sprinkle the sprout with a small amount of warm water so that the soil around the plant is well moistened.
  6. Install a trellis next to the seedlings to garter the lashes of the bush.

Video: planting seedlings of watermelon in the open ground

The rules for transplanting Ataman watermelon seedlings in open ground are slightly different from the algorithm for planting plants in a greenhouse. In the fall, you need to dig the soil on the site and make such fertilizers (the amount is indicated per 1 m²):

  • rotted manure - 5 kg;
  • superphosphate - 40 g;
  • ammonium sulfate - 30 g;
  • potassium salt - 20 g.

Did you know? Watermelons were grown in Ancient Greece - this is evidenced by the seeds of the culture found in the tomb of Tutankhamun.

Detailed instructions for this procedure are presented below:

  1. Prepare landing holes up to 12 cm deep, placing them in rows at intervals of 1-1.5 m. At least 2 m is left between rows.
  2. Pour 2 liters of warm water onto the bottom of each well.
  3. Carefully remove the seedling from the individual container and place it in the hole so that the cotyledon leaf plates are near the surface of the soil.
  4. To fill in the recess with the seedling with loose earth and slightly compact it with your hands. In a radius of 10 cm from the stem of the plant, pour a layer of sand to protect against root rot.
  5. Sprinkle the sprouts with a small amount of warm water to moisten the soil.
  6. The first few days to shade plants from direct sunlight until the sprouts adapt in a new place.

Video: preparing a planting hole for planting watermelon seedlings

Seed directly into the ground

When grown in areas with warm and long summers, you can immediately sow Ataman watermelon seeds in open ground. But with this method of growing, the ripening time of the first striped berries is increased to 2 months. Land on the site must be prepared in advance.

Important! The exact time for sowing Ataman watermelon seeds in open beds depends on climate conditions, but usually fall at the end of May.

To do this, perform the following actions:

  • in autumn all plant debris is removed from the soil - fungal spores or pest larvae may remain on them;
  • before the onset of winter, rotted manure and potassium-phosphorus preparations are introduced - in 4 months they will dissolve in the ground and make it as nutritious as possible;
  • carry out deep digging of the soil to a depth of 20-30 cm - this will help to destroy insect larvae wintering in the ground and fungal spores;
  • immediately before planting, the soil surface must be loosened.

Land for watermelons is prepared in the fall, it is fertilized with manure (4 kg per 1 sq. M.). Watermelons do not tolerate fresh manure, and besides, it can lead to the formation of fungal diseases. And if the land is cultivated in November, then during the winter the manure will cross over and not harm the culture

The rules for planting seeds in open ground are listed below:

  1. Select large watermelon seeds with a flat surface, put them in a thermos and pour hot (+50 ° C) water. Keep planting material in a thermos until small green sprouts appear, and then remove and put it on a paper towel.
  2. At a distance of about 1 m from each other, dig holes 8–10 cm deep.
  3. Mix a little garden soil with 1 kg of humus, a handful of wood ash and a pinch of complex mineral fertilizer. Put the mixture on the bottom of the hole and pour 2 liters of warm water on it.
  4. When the moisture is completely absorbed into the ground, put them on a mound of nutritious soil mixture of 2-3 seeds.
  5. To fill up the deepening with loose soil to the very top, and then slightly compact its surface. Watering is not necessary - it can wash the seeds from the ground.
  6. You can cover the bed with a film of seeds sown with seeds at night - this will accelerate the emergence of seedlings. Green sprouts appear about a week after planting.

Video: planting watermelon seeds in open ground

Care Features

Ataman watermelon is unpretentious in cultivation and does not require specific care. To maintain the required temperature and comfortable humidity in the greenhouse, it is recommended to carry out ventilation. In order for young shoots to grow and develop well, periodically remove weeds in the beds and loosen the soil around the plants. An adult bush has a branched root system, which is located close to the surface of the soil, so it is easy to accidentally damage it during loosening. The main components of proper crop care are watering and timely top dressing.

The loosening procedure is carried out 1-2 days after watering, but only during the period of active growth of the lashes

Norms of watering and top dressing

In order for Ataman watermelon to successfully grow green mass, and its fruits are large and sweet, you need to provide the plant with enough water and nutrients. Proper watering takes the most important place in the list of activities for the care of the bush, and fertilizers make the berries sugar and help to increase crop productivity.

Important! When growing Ataman watermelons in a greenhouse, you need to run the bees inside the premises for pollination of gourds or independently carry out this procedure manually.

Basic watering rules are listed below:

  • Ataman watermelon is watered once a week, spending about 30 liters of water per 1 m², and during the period of intense heat or the beginning of flowering, plants are irrigated every 3-4 days;
  • water the bushes under the root so that water does not fall on the leaves - this can cause sunburn on them;
  • for irrigation of watermelon, you can use only warm water - the roots of the plant are sensitive to cold water, which can cause bush disease;
  • it is impossible to overmoisten the soil on the bed, and in the season of prolonged rains the bushes need to be covered with a film - excess water can cause root rot;
  • watering is stopped 10-14 days before the planned harvest - this will give the watermelon pulp a sweet taste and a fine-grained structure.

When applying fertilizer to the beds with watermelons, Ataman adhere to the following rules:

  • in mid-June, the bushes are watered with a solution of ammonium nitrate (20 g per 10 liters of water) - about 2 liters of the obtained liquid fertilizer are needed per plant. Можно заменить селитру куриным помётом или коровяком, разбавляя их водой в пропорции 1:20 и 1:10 соответственно;
  • перед началом цветения под каждое растение вносят аммиачную селитру и хлористый кальций (по 4 г), а также 6 г суперфосфата;
  • через 14 дней после завершения цветения кусты ещё раз подкармливают готовыми фосфорно-калийными удобрениями, разбавляя их водой согласно инструкции на упаковке;
  • перед подкормкой сухими удобрениями и после неё нужно обязательно полить арбузы водой;
  • после того, как началось созревание ягод, подкормки не вносят.

Видео: подкормка арбузов

Pest and Disease Control

В процессе ненадлежащего ухода, повышенной влажности, а также при снижении температуры воздуха, арбуз Атаман может поражаться болезнями или подвергаться атаке вредителей. Устранить появившиеся проблемы проще всего на начальной стадии, поэтому каждый огородник должен знать первые признаки поражения растений и способы лечения.

Советуем вам узнать, почему горчит арбуз.

Список основных болезней и вредителей данной культуры представлен ниже:

  1. Powdery Mildew Возбудителем заболевания являются споры грибка, находящиеся в верхних слоях почвы. Первый признак инфекции — порошкообразный белый налёт на листьях, который в дальнейшем вызывает засыхание всей зелёной массы куста. Завязи плодов при этом деформируются и опадают, а сформировавшиеся ягоды становятся безвкусными и загнивают. Чтобы вылечить куст, используют фунгициды (например, «Скор», «Фундазол»).

  2. Root rot. Заболевание поражает подземную часть растения, поэтому обнаружить его бывает непросто. При этом куст начинает отставать в росте, его листья и стебли выглядят вялыми, а основание стебля становится бурым и теряет упругость. На начальной стадии растение можно вылечить, откорректировав режим полива и обработав корни раствором из 500 мл воды, 8 г медного купороса и 20 г золы.

  3. Bacterial spotting. Данное заболевания является особенно опасным, т. к. его невозможно вылечить, а поражённый куст нужно обязательно уничтожить. Признаком инфекции служит появление водянистых участков на листьях арбуза. Края этих пятен окрашены в жёлто-зелёный цвет и постепенно разрастаются, поражая всю поверхность листа. В результате этого зелёная масса растения чернеет и гибнет, а на ягодах образуются чёрные наросты круглой формы.

  4. Wireworm. Вредитель имеет вид небольших личинок бурого или рыжего цвета, которые подгрызают молодые ростки арбуза и сформированные плоды. Оставленные на ягодах сквозные отверстия приводят к загниванию урожая и делают его непригодным для хранения и транспортировки. Против проволочника устанавливают ловушки в виде вкопанных в землю стеклянных банок с кусочками корнеплодов. Ловушки периодически заменяют, уничтожая гусениц, которые в них попали. При сильном поражении применяют специальные препараты для уничтожения вредителя (например, «Землин», «Диазорин»).

  5. Gourd aphids. Данное насекомое поселяется на нижней стороне листа и стеблях арбуза и питается соками растения. Зелёная масса куста, при этом, покрывается липким налётом, который со временем становится чёрным и приводит к увяданию листьев. С тлёй можно бороться с помощью смеси табачной пыли и древесной золы, распыляя её на листья арбуза и почву. При сильном поражении вредителями применяют инсектициды (например, «Фуфанон»).

Чтобы предотвратить появление болезней и вредителей, достаточно осуществлять простые меры профилактики:

  • высаживать арбузы на хорошо освещённых участках, защищённых от холодных сквозняков;
  • придерживаться рекомендуемой схемы посадки растений для устранения чрезмерной загущенности посевов;
  • осуществлять правильный полив;
  • придерживаться графика внесения удобрений, чтобы повысить иммунитет бахчевых посадок;
  • регулярно удалять сорняки и выносить их за пределы участка, чтобы они не привлекали вредителей;
  • рыхлить почву вокруг молодых растений, чтобы уничтожить личинки насекомых и споры грибка.

Harvesting and storage of crops

Созревшие арбузы сорта Атаман нужно вовремя срезать с плетей, так как переспевшие плоды не годятся для продолжительного хранения и транспортировки, а их мякоть становится более мягкой и даже может забродить. При выращивании в теплице ягоды собирают во второй половине июля, а на открытом участке — в начале августа.

Вам будет интересно узнать, как правильно выбрать спелый арбуз.

О том, что арбуз достиг зрелости, свидетельствуют такие признаки:

  • сухая плодоножка коричневого цвета;
  • ярко-жёлтое крупное пятно на боку плода;
  • контрастная окраска кожуры с чередованием чётких тёмных и светлых полос;
  • появление тонкого воскового налёта на поверхности арбуза;
  • звонкий звук, раздающийся при постукивании ладонью по кожуре плода.

Основные правила сбора и хранения урожая перечислены ниже:

  • арбузы нужно оберегать от ударов и деформаций — они могут привести к растрескиванию плодов;
  • плоды срезают острым ножом, оставляя на них небольшой кусочек плодоножки, чтобы избежать загнивания кожуры в месте повреждения;
  • при хранении в помещении с температурой воздуха +10...+15 °С и относительной влажностью 85–90% ягоды остаются свежими и вкусными на протяжении 2-3 недель;
  • при транспортировке арбузы укладывают на ровную поверхность, покрытую мягким материалом — это позволит уберечь их от трещин;
  • на хранение закладывают только плоды с цельной кожурой, размещая их на некотором расстоянии друг от друга — для предотвращения гнили.

Important! Сбор ягод осуществляется исключительно вручную — это позволит предотвратить механические повреждения кожуры.

Выращивание арбузов сорта Атаман под силу даже начинающему огороднику. Растения не нуждаются в специфических условиях, но при этом радуют щедрым урожаем вкусных ягод. Для этого нужно, лишь, выполнять перечисленные в данной статье рекомендации по посадке культуры и следовать несложным правилам по уходу за растениями.

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