Description and characteristics of breeds of cows of meat breeds
Cattle breeding is very popular today. Every year, meat cows are becoming increasingly popular. Their cultivation is ideal for large farms. About the features of the content and the main characteristics of the most common breeds of this type - in this article.
Features of cattle meat breeds
The meat breeds of cows have a different purpose and physique (in contrast to animals of a dairy direction). They are grown in order to get high-quality meat.
They are characterized by such features:
- They are taller than dairy, their body is muscular, proportionate, strong.
- Such animals have an underdeveloped udder (their milk is mainly intended only for feeding calves).
- The chest of the cows is wide, deep and powerful.
- The skin is thick and strong.
- The animals are very large in size.
- Their physique on the side and top resembles a rectangle.
The quality of meat depends on the living conditions and diet of animals. The owners should use high-quality concentrated feed, a lot of greens in the spring and summer, and fresh high-quality hay in the autumn and winter. The room for such cows should be warm, spacious, well-lit, without drafts. Keeping clean and dry is the main condition.
Breeds of meat cows
What are the most common breeds of meat? What is known about their productivity?
Representatives of this breed are muscular and strong. Their coat has a golden hue; in the lower abdomen it is slightly lighter. An adult cow weighs up to 600 kg, a bull - up to 1.1 tons.
Read more about the Limousin breed of cattle.
The weight of newborn calves reaches more than 40 kg. Kids gain weight very quickly.
The female produces up to 1800 liters of milk per year. This variety of cows is easy to maintain, as it is undemanding in care and nutrition. Cows easily tolerate heat and frost. They also rarely get sick. Their meat is very appreciated by gourmets. It is fine fiber, delicate in taste and juicy.
Did you know? Females of this breed have a highly developed maternal instinct. Seeing that their calves are in danger, they can be very aggressive.
This variety is popular in temperate climatic latitudes. It can be kept in the northern and hot southern climates, because the animals quickly adapt to any temperature. Most often they have black hair, sometimes red. Body shape with a rounded, short neck and legs, a small head. Their height at the withers is only 116-118 cm. They differ from other breeds with a kolost.
Did you know? This species was bred at the end of the 18th century in Scotland from local hornless cows in the counties of Aberdeen and Angus. The name of the breed appeared from the place of origin of the animals.
This breed is the most popular today. The animals are distinguished by a characteristic red coat color with large white spots on the neck, stomach and head. The individuals are low, with a small head and horns pointing down. The coat is thick, slightly curly. In winter, it is longer than in summer. An adult male weighs 1 ton and a female weighs 600 kg. Calves are born weighing about 36 kg. The female gives up to 200 liters of milk per year.
Important! The main disadvantage of the breed is a small amount of milk, which is not even enough to feed the calf. Therefore, the baby from the first days of life needs to be fed a little bit with other food.
These animals are the best heavyweights among cattle. It is easy to distinguish them from other breeds by their characteristic appearance: they possess relief, hypertrophied muscles. The neck and legs are short. The coat is loose, white and blue (red, black or spotted coat is very rare).
The weight of an adult bull reaches 1.2 tons, and the weight of a cow is 900 kg. Calves quickly gain weight. Already in a year, the weight of a bull is up to 470 kg, and heifers up to 370 kg. If gobies from birth to fattening, their weight will be even more. In addition to meat, females give a lot of milk - up to 4.5 tons per year.
Check out the Belgian blue cattle in more detail.
The advantage of this variety is a good temperament. Animals, despite their formidable appearance, get along well with people. They are also obedient.
- There are some disadvantages to Belgian cows:
- Low immunity . Animals need to provide good conditions, keep vaccinations on time to prevent the occurrence of various diseases.
- They do not tolerate frosts well, so in the barn in winter you need to maintain heat.
- The calving process is problematic . Often a caesarean section is done to relieve it.
The color of this breed is red with small white spots on the stomach and head. Cows are tall, with dense skin, which protects their body from hypothermia in winter and from high heat in summer. Animals adapt well to any temperature conditions. There is an occipital crest by which this breed can be identified among others.
Representatives of this species are very fat. Fat is deposited under the skin, between the muscles and muscle fibers. In winter, when the diet of cows is low in vitamins, it is used as an additional source of energy.
Animals are unpretentious in the maintenance and care. They are very hardy. These qualities have made the breed the most popular in the farms of our country.
Important! Cows of this breed require a lot of water. Its amount per day must be calculated depending on the weight of the animal: for cows whose weight does not exceed 250 kg, let's drink 35-40 liters of water; with animals weighing from 250 kg to 350 kg, they need 50 liters of water; cows weighing more than 350 kg need 60 liters of water per day.
Representatives of this species stand out for their beautiful appearance: they have a white or cream color, a long coat on the back and head. Animals are not tall, with a short neck and a small head. Small muscles stand out on the body.
Cows of this breed can be used in the farm as a draft force. And most importantly, the quality of meat does not deteriorate from the duration of their operation. It remains non-greasy, soft and delicate in taste.
Important! The only drawback of this variety of cows is that they have a difficult calving process. It happens with the obligatory help of a person.
The coat color of representatives of this breed is red. The head, chest, lower abdomen and legs are white. From the characteristics of the color comes their name. Like all meat breeds, these animals have a strong physique. They have a small head, short neck and legs. Horns are very small, sticking up.
Learn more about the Kazakh white-headed breed of cows.
Representatives of this breed stand out for their characteristic appearance. They are hornless, have a wavy thick coat of black color up to 20 cm long. Around the body in the middle, cows have a wide white belt. Animals are short, muscular and very well-fed.
Read more about the Galloway breed of cows.
Highland Mini Cows
It is a variety exotic enough for our latitudes. Animals are small in stature, with long, slightly curly hair and the same long bangs. This breed stands out with wide sharp horns pointing up. The most common red color of the coat, less often - gray and black.
The weight of an adult bull reaches 750 kg, and a cow - 450-550 kg. The weight of the newborn calf is 20-25 kg. The female gives up to 1000 liters of milk per year. Animals easily adapt to different temperature conditions. Read more
Highlands are very unpretentious in food. They can even eat shrubs and coarse grasses.
Cows of this variety cannot be overfed, because the quality of meat decreases, it loses its dietary properties and becomes very fat. Representatives of this breed with a very strong immunity, they are never exposed to disease.
They also have a calm disposition. They can easily get along in the same territory with other pets, and also do not show aggression towards people.
Did you know? The meat of this breed contains a lot more protein and iron than the meat of other breeds. Therefore, it is very useful for people with heart disease.
Before breeding cows of this breed, you need to take care of the presence of a large space for grazing. Walking in the pasture is permissible even in winter, when there is no snow. In no case should you keep the highlands on a leash. Otherwise, their weight will rapidly fall. It is very profitable to grow cows of any meat breed, because they give a lot of high-quality meat. The main thing is to follow the basic rules of care and nutrition of these breeds.