Description and characteristics of apricot varieties Lel, planting rules and care features

Apricot varieties Lel - an excellent solution for most regions of the middle zone of the Russian Federation (often found in the suburbs). It feels great in the territory of Moscow Region, and is sometimes grown in more northern regions, of course, subject to certain requirements for planting and care. What exactly are the variety trees remarkable for and what you should know about the nuances of their cultivation - read on.

Description and history of selection of varieties

The first Lel seedlings appeared in 1986, thanks to the efforts of breeders Alexei Skvortsov and Larisa Kramarenko, who worked on the basis of the Main Botanical Garden of Moscow. In 2004, a new variety entered the State Register of Breeding Achievements, and was recommended for cultivation in the central regions of Russia.

An adult plant is a three-meter tree, with dense light brown wood (in the center the shade is slightly darker), characterized by moderate growth rates. Annual branches have a reddish-brown color, and become darker with age. For three to four years, weakly branched shoots form a regular, rounded crown, but only subject to competent and timely pruning.

Did you know? The name of the fruit "apricot" comes from Holland (from the nid. "Abrikoos"). Prior to this, the term was formed from the Arabic word "al-birquq", which means "early ripening".

Leaf plates - egg-shaped, dark green in color with a shiny surface. To the touch they are soft and smooth, slightly pointed at the end, with small notches. On the inside, all the leaves are dull, and on the young shoots are placed alternately. During the flowering period (from April to May), the entire crown of the apricot is covered with beautiful white-pink single flowers, sitting tightly in the axils of the leaves. Flowering can withstand spring temperature drop to -1 ... -1.5 ° C.

Apricot Lel is a relatively new variety that quickly gained popularity among Russian gardeners. The fruits of the Lel variety are rounded, slightly compressed on two sides of the drupe, weighing about 20 g each. The dense and elastic flesh is covered with an orange, slightly shiny skin, which, unlike the fruits of other varieties, does not have a characteristic slight pubescence or blush. The taste characteristics of apricots are at a high level, because they combine high sugar content and low acidity, for which the variety was highly appreciated by tasters.

Characteristics of varieties Lel

As with growing other varieties of apricot, it is useful for every gardener to know about the main indicators of frost resistance, drought tolerance and yield of the chosen option. Also, do not forget about the question of pollination of the culture and the desired field of application of the harvested crop.

We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the features of healthy and unhealthy properties of apricot.

Drought resistance, frost resistance

Almost any apricot tree belongs to the group of heat-loving plants, therefore it is not surprising that plants of the Lel variety are also characterized by high drought tolerance and can easily tolerate very hot summer days. However, high drought tolerance is not the only advantage of the described fruits, because trees can also be planted in regions with cold winters.

Apricot Lel's fruits are small, but their taste deserves only rave reviews. With proper shelter, even young seedlings can easily tolerate temperature drops to -30 ° C, and shoots will not suffer during return frosts in the aisles of -1 ... -3 ° C. Given this feature, Lel apricot can be grown in Siberia, which is rarely possible for heat-loving crops.

Apricot pollinators Lel

Apricot trees of the Lel variety belong to self-pollinated heat-loving crops, which is also one of the main advantages of the plant. The stamens of the flowers are covered with pollen, and due to the presence of a pestle, the culture can self-pollinate. However, there are flowers on the same tree that need cross-pollination to form the ovaries, therefore, it is good if other apricot trees with similar flowering periods are planted next to the Lel variety. Ideal pollinators in this case would be trees of the Aquarius and Alyosha varieties, at least one specimen per plot.

Important! Pollination of apricot Lel depends little on honey insects, since during the period of active flowering of the tree they are still not active enough.

Variety Productivity

The first crop of grown trees of the described variety bring about 3-4 years after planting them at a constant place of growth. Fruit ovaries are observed both on single flowers and on specimens assembled in a bouquet, but at first it is unlikely to be able to collect more than 20 kg of apricots from one tree. Adult and well-grown plants already produce about 30–35 kg of apricots, but for this they need to provide stable and regular care.

Apricots of the Lel variety are great for making any homemade preparations

Fields of application

At the stage of full maturity, the Lel apricots are tasty juicy and very sweet fruits, which, despite their small size and significant volume of seeds, can be used for various culinary purposes: from fresh consumption, to harvesting compotes, jams and preserves for the winter, not to mention the possibility of use in baking. In addition, apricot extract in the form of granules and dragees helps with anemia, you just need to soak them in water for a while before use.

Did you know? Dried apricots (dried apricots) are no less popular than fresh fruits, but for those who follow their figure, they cannot be an acceptable alternative to the first. On average, dried apricots contain 10-12 times more calories than the pulp of fresh apricots, so dried fruits will only contribute to weight gain.

These fruits are suitable for the preparation of vitamin baby food, and can also be used for the manufacture of cosmetic preparations, which in quality will not be inferior in quality to essential oils based on peach and almond. Of the drinks, popular apricot varieties will be stewed fruit, fruit drinks and fresh juices, which are successfully combined with other fresh juices.

Disease and pest resistance

Apricots of the described variety do not differ in increased resistance to typical ailments and pests of fruit trees, therefore, when growing plants with violations of the rules of care, the gardener may encounter kleasteropsoriosis (hole blotchiness), monolioz, bacterial cancer, invasion of aphids, moths, weevils. Depending on the type of problem, different parts of the plant suffer, but, in any case, the yield of apricots falls and will not be of such high quality.

In the fight against ailments, fungicidal preparations are used (for example, Fitosporin or Skor), and insecticides will help get rid of apricot pests, the most popular of which are Intra-Vir, Decis, and Metaphos. The main preventive measures are the monitoring of humidity on the site, the dosed use of nutrient mixtures and the protection of young plants from winter temperature drops.

Important! Before treating the trees from diseases, for starters, it is necessary to remove all damaged areas, since only in this way it will be possible to achieve the most effective result from the spraying.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

Given all the above characteristics of the Lel apricot variety, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of this plant will not be difficult. However, despite all the shortcomings, the existing advantages of the Lel apricot completely compensate for them, which is why plants are so often found in personal plots.

  • So, in the list of indisputable advantages of culture include:
  • relatively high frost resistance of trees;
  • self-fertility of plants;
  • drought tolerance of the crop;
  • insignificant annual growth;
  • early onset of fruiting (on average, 3-4 years after planting a seedling on a plot or grafting a young plant in another variety);
  • excellent crop keeping performance;
  • compact crown sizes and well-groomed appearance even with moderate care;
  • low demands on soil composition.

  • As for the disadvantages of the variety, there are fewer of them, but it is impossible not to pay attention to them, because these are:
  • poor resistance to common diseases and pests of fruit crops;
  • relatively low yields;
  • large fruit seed;
  • small fruit sizes.

Rules for planting apricot seedlings

Apricot seedlings of the Lel variety are planted on the site in accordance with the general principles and methods of preparation. First of all, it is worth choosing the most suitable dates for planting the plants, then preparing the site and the youngest tree itself, and only after that proceed to the immediate planting events. Each of these actions has its own characteristic features that must be taken into account for the most successful result of the entire procedure.

Timing and seat selection

Fruit trees are planted both in spring and in autumn, but as for Lel apricot grown in the central regions, it is advisable to carry out planting activities with the arrival of steady heat (as soon as the night temperature is kept in the aisles + 10 ... + 12 ° C) . By the next winter, the young plant will have time to adapt to the new growing conditions and will form a well-developed root system. Autumn planting is permissible in warm growing regions, when at least two months remain before the winter cold. The exact timing of planting will depend on weather conditions, but most often apricot seedlings are placed in the ground in October.

We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the features of planting apricot and care for it.

The landing place must be located on the sunny side of the site, closed from cold gusts of wind and drafts. As for the composition of the soil, light, drained soils of chernozem, sandy loam or loamy varieties are ideal in this case. Purely sandy or the same clay substrates for planting Lel apricot will not work: in the first case, burns and early signs of aging may appear on the tree, and in the second, the development of diseases is possible. If a site suitable for the plant is not found, it can be prepared by hand, by making a mound of soil, 70 cm high, on a two-meter area.

Preparing the site and seedlings for planting

Before planting any fruit crop, the selected place must be cleared of the remains of weeds and previously grown plants, loosen the soil and, if necessary, add nutrients to it: for example, 3-4 kg of rotted manure or 200 g of superphosphate fertilizer, per 1 m². The dimensions of the landing hole itself should correspond to the parameters of the seedling rhizome, but usually both the depth and the width of the pit are at least 70 cm.

Seedlings with a closed root system are placed in a hole together with an existing earthen lump, and between adjacent young apricots leave at least 3.5–4 m of free space (the optimal distance between adjacent rows is 6 m). A ten-centimeter drainage layer should be placed at the bottom of the landing pit, using gravel, crushed stone or coarse sand to form it. They will help improve the air permeability of the soil and will not allow excess moisture to accumulate at the rhizome of the seedling.

Read also about the apricot tree made from stone at home.

The process of planting young seedlings

The general rules for planting Lel apricot are not much different from similar actions when growing other varieties of this fruit crop, therefore, the main thing for the gardener is to observe the following sequence of actions:

  1. Pour a small mound into the pit from the removed upper layer of fertile soil.
  2. Having departed from the central point of the top of the hill 10-15 cm, dig a one and a half meter support stake (in the future, the seedling itself will need to be tied to it).
  3. Place a prepared seedling next to the stake, carefully spreading all the roots of the plant.
  4. Fill the rhizome with soil, controlling the uniform distribution of the substrate between the individual roots (all voids should be filled with soil).
  5. Tie a young plant to the support using soft twine.
  6. Form a near-stem circle and moisten a young tree well, spending at least 10-15 l of water defended in the sun on one plant.

Video: apricot planting instructions

If desired, you can additionally mulch the near-trunk zone with dry grass or wood sawdust, which will help to retain moisture in the soil for a long time. The layer of such a coating should not exceed 20 cm.

Apricot Care Rules

For successful cultivation and maximum fruiting of Lel apricot, the tree needs to organize proper care, which will include timely watering, top dressing, pruning of the crown and soil care in the near-stem circle. Special attention should be paid to the prevention of diseases and pests of culture, because the described variety is not highly resistant to external adverse environmental factors.

Prevention and protection against pests and diseases

The main preventive measure when caring for Lel apricots is compliance with the requirements for watering plants, dosed use of nutrients during top dressing, and timely control of diseases or pests that have already manifested. An effective chemical agent for the prevention and treatment of popular apricot ailments (for example, kleasterosporiosis) is considered to be a Bordeaux mixture, which is sprayed before the buds open and in the autumn, shortly after harvesting.

In addition, when preparing trees for the cold season, whitewashing of trunks and the base of skeletal shoots is performed, and the crown can be sprayed with copper sulfate (it cannot be tolerated by aphids, moths and moths) Damaged areas by diseases or insects on trees should be removed on time, immediately burned. Places of branch cuts are necessarily treated with garden varieties, which will prevent damage to the deeper layers of tissues by pathogenic microorganisms. In case of mass destruction of apricot trees, special chemical fungicidal or insecticidal preparations will be appropriate, the most popular of which are considered to be Skor, Aktara, Fitosporin, Aktelik.

Learn more about apricot tree diseases and their treatment.

Irrigation intensity

To ensure high-quality watering to the tree, along the edge of the trunk circle it is necessary to organize a small hole into which the irrigation liquid will pour. Each year, the diameter of the circle will increase, which means that the recess must also be taken farther and farther from the center of the stem. On average, at the initial stages of growing Lel apricot, the recess is no closer than 30–40 cm from the trunk, and about 20–30 L of water is consumed per tree at a time. With age, the volume of irrigation fluid increases, bringing the values ​​up to 45-50 l per adult tree.

The apricot is watered along the annular grooves located around the trunk so as not to expose the roots. The same amount of water is required for the plants during the formation of the ovary and ripening of the fruit, and the rest of the time the apricot can not be watered (provided that the summer is moderately hot and there is enough natural rain ) On average, adult plants are watered about 3-4 times a season, ending the period of active vegetation with water-charging irrigation (performed in October and involves the use of 50-60 l of water per plant).

Feeding scheme

The choice of a suitable fertilizer and the particularities of performing the feeding procedure itself directly depend not only on the age of the plant, but also on the season: spring, summer or autumn. With the arrival of the first heat, before flowering and immediately after it, nitrogen-containing substances (for example, urea) are added under the apricot, calculated at 30–40 g per 1 m² of the trunk circle. In the same period, with a frequency of once every 2-3 years, you can make rotted compost (5-6 kg per 1 m²), manure or bird droppings (300 g per 1 m²), previously dissolved in water in a ratio of 1:10.

You will be interested to know why the apricot tree does not bear fruit.

For the summer period, foliar feeding is more characteristic, which is applied by spraying the formulations (2-5 l per plant). Typically, the preparations used for such treatments contain iron, a solution of boric acid and manganese sulphate, and with homosis or cracking of the fruit seeds, root feeding with slaked lime (300–500 g per 1 m² of the trunk circle) is appropriate. There is nothing complicated in such a fertilizer: it is only necessary to mix the selected substance with the soil, evenly distributing it in the thickness of the soil.

For feeding apricot in the fall, usually use wood ash and chalk, calculated at 300-500 g per 1 m² of territory. As with lime, you only need to mix the substance with the soil evenly. It is most logical to perform the procedure during the digging of the soil between the rows

Cropping and shaping the crown

Formative and sanitary pruning of apricot trees, as well as other measures for plant care, should be carried out on a regular basis, which will guarantee the limitation of the spread of diseases and pests, as well as optimal ventilation and lighting of fruit trees with sunlight. In the first spring days, all damaged, broken and diseased branches are subject to cutting, and if necessary, this procedure can be repeated in the autumn period.

Important! Выполняя обрезку всегда помните о принципе соподчинения ветвей: на первом ярусе должны находится самые длинные ветви, на втором уже короче и на последнем, третьем — ещё более короткие.

Что касается формирующей обрезки, то тут все действия выполняются согласно определённой схемы:

  1. В первый год после посадки молодого саженца, укорачивают только основной, центральный побег, самую верхушку растения, и то лишь на 3–4 почки (оставшаяся высота должна соответствовать 80–100 см, чтобы у абрикоса хорошо сформировался первый ярус).
  2. На второй год у молодого растения появляются боковые ветки, которые следует подрезать на 1/3 их изначальной длины. При этом оставляют только 2–3 самые сильные ветви, расположенные строго горизонтально, растущие в разные стороны. Остальные побеги вырезают «на кольцо». Также обрезке подлежит и верхушечная часть основного проводника, а срез должен выполняться на высоте 60–80 см от разветвления первого яруса (от бокового, самого верхнего побега). Так образуется ещё один ярус, расстояние до которого должно быть не больше 50 см. Между отдельными ветками одного яруса допускается расстояние в 10–15 см, при общей высоте штамба 80–100 см.
  3. В третий год выращивания придётся снова укоротить боковые ветки, а также обрезать молодые побеги второго порядка на одну почку (примерно 1/3 общей длины). Кроме того, не забудьте оставить 2 побега второго яруса, также предварительно укоротив их на 1/3 всей длины. Повторной подрезке подлежит и верхушка центрального ствола, обязательно на расстоянии 30–50 см от второго яруса. В этот период главный центральный ствол должен остаться один, а все конкурентные боковые побеги придётся удалить «на кольцо».
  4. Следующий, четвёртый год выращивания саженца — последний этап формирования кроны, правда, при условии, что планируется только три яруса. Все действия выполняются аналогично предыдущим мероприятиям, разве что при формировании в три яруса нужно будет оставить два основных побега, а верхушку обрезать «на кольцо», переводя на боковую ветку (третья ветка).

После пяти лет выращивания вместо формирующей обрезки выполняют омолаживающую и санитарную процедуры. Оптимальная высота абрикосового дерева для сбора урожая — 3, 5–4 м, хотя, по возможности, можно сформировать двух-трёхметровое растение.

Winter preparations

При выращивании абрикоса Лель на южных территориях России, вполне вероятно, что даже совсем молодые саженцы переживут зиму без привычного укрытия, однако в центральных или северных регионах такая вероятность не столь высока, поэтому, по возможности, желательно перестраховаться, используя агроволокно или любой другой материал для организации укрытия. Подготовка абрикоса Лель к зиме начинается с уборки опавшей листвы, санитарной обрезки кроны и перекопки грунта в приствольном круге.

Читайте, как утеплять абрикосовые деревья на зиму.

В дальнейшем необходимо зачистить кору, побелить стволы и основание скелетных ветвей, и только после этого приступать к применению агроволокна или любого другого утепляющего материала. Из естественных утепляющих материалов могут использоваться высохшие (не свежие) древесные опилки, но тогда придётся позаботиться о дополнительной защите от грызунов.

Кроме того, после первого снегопада полезно нагрести снег на ствол дерева, правда, эта рекомендация, в большей степени, касается взрослых растений Иногда для защиты ветвей кроны от мороза на них наносят смесь из гашеной извести, порошковой глины, медного купороса и канцелярского клея, а для защиты абрикосов от грызунов, их ствол оборачивают сосновыми или еловыми ветками. Грунт в приствольной зоне можно замульчировать торфяной крошкой или перегноем, которые нужно уложить на поверхности земли десятисантиметровым слоем. У самого основания ствола из такого грунта делают небольшую насыпь, высотой до 20–25 см.

Harvesting and storage of crops

Абрикосы сорта Лель обычно готовы к сбору уже в средине июля, правда не исключён вариант созревания плодов ближе к началу или даже средине августа, что зависит от климатических условий в конкретном регионе выращивания. Описанный сорт не отличается дружным созреванием фруктов, поэтому снять за один раз все абрикосы не получится. Их поэтапное созревание часто растягивается на 30–40 дней, правда первые плоды с молодого дерева можно будет получить не раньше, чем через 3–4 года после высадки растения на участке.

Find out how much apricot kernels can be eaten per day.

Средняя урожайность с молодого дерева — 10–15 кг плодов за сезон, но после десятилетнего выращивания культуры эти значения только вырастают (в среднем, до 30–35 кг с одного растения). Обеспечив плодовому дереву должный уход такие показатели сохраняться на 18–20 лет. В свежем виде плоды отлично хранятся в холодильнике или погребе, с температурой в приделах 0…+1 °C и влажностью 85–90%. В таких условиях абрикосы не потеряют свои качества в течение 1–2 недель. По истечении указанного времени они начинают гнить, поэтому уже на 3–4 неделю после уборочных работ потери могут составить до 20%.

При необходимости продолжительной транспортировки лучше снимать с деревьев слегка недозревшие плоды — примерно на неделю раньше рекомендуемых сроков уборки. После съёма с дерева абрикосы сразу раскладывают в деревянные или картонные ящики, несколькими слоями, следя, чтобы плоды не деформировались. Для полного созревания снятого урожая ему требуется ещё несколько дней после уборки с кроны.

В целом, абрикосы Лель можно считать достойным вариантом для культивирования не только в южных, но и в центральных регионах России, ведь при высокой неприхотливости к уходу, деревья формируют достаточное количество вкусных и полезных плодов среднеранних сроков созревания.

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