Description and care of Gala grape varieties
Today, many are engaged in the cultivation of grapes. Moreover, there are a large number of hybrid varieties on the market that perfectly take root in the climate of our region. One of these hybrids is Gala grapes, which attracts attention with the simplicity of care and the unusual taste of the fruit. What is the difference between this grape from other varieties, and what are the features of its agricultural technology, let's figure it out.
Grapes Gala refers to modern varieties of culture, the cultivation of which on a large scale began relatively recently. The culture was bred by a breeder from Ukraine Zagorulko V.V. As a genetic basis for the hybrid, the scientist chose two varieties - the Gift of Zaporozhye and Kodryanka, the crossing of which made it possible to obtain a plant resistant to frost and pests, with remarkable commercial qualities of the fruit. Important! The plant has high fruitfulness, so it is very important to ensure timely care. When the bush is overloaded, the taste of berries deteriorates.
Gala grapes are an early ripening variety in which the first crop can be harvested after 110–125 days. The bush is quite sprawling, large, tall, with large, wide leaves of saturated green color. The vine is characterized by good ripening, capable of reaching a height of 2 m.
In the process of flowering, bisexual, small-sized flowers are formed on the grapes, which are transformed into juicy berries of a dark blue color, oval in shape. Grapes are large and large in weight, which can be 10–12 g.
The berries grow intensively, do not form small or unripe fruits, collected in clusters of conical or cylindrical shape, weighing 0.5–2 kg. The taste of berries is saturated, harmonious, quite soft, has a slight acidity. The pulp is dense, juicy, with a sugar content of up to 16%.
Advantages and disadvantages
Variety Gala has a number of advantages, thanks to which modern gardeners fell in love.
- Its positive properties include:
- resistance to ailments and pests, including fungal diseases;
- ability to grow in adverse climatic conditions;
- unusual taste of fruits;
- high yield;
- stable bearing.
- Not without variety and disadvantages:
- the need to harvest immediately after fruit ripening (berries are not able to remain on the bushes for a long time, they ripen quite early, fill with juice and begin to crack, which attracts wasps);
- average level of frost resistance;
- large sizes of clusters that the vine cannot always withstand.
In most cases, Gala grapes are used fresh as a full, healthy and very tasty product. Often, the berries of the culture serve as an excellent raw material for obtaining wine or natural juice, which has a sweet and sour, pleasant, mild taste and amazing aroma. Raisins are made from berries on an industrial scale. As a low-calorie product, grapes are popular in diet and weight loss.
Due to the rich chemical composition and the presence of useful vitamins and minerals, grapes are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments, in cosmetology - for the manufacture of skin and hair care products, as well as in the pharmaceutical field - for the development of medicines.
Read how to make black grape wine.
How to plant grapes
To achieve regular fruiting and high quality fruits, it is necessary to adhere to the basic rules when planting a plant.
Selection of seedlings
Further growth and development of grapes, first of all, will depend on the state of planting material. Experts recommend purchasing seedlings in proven places, special nurseries or from familiar gardeners who are able to guarantee the quality of the material.
Before buying a seedling, you should conduct a visual inspection of it for mechanical and biological damage, including symptoms of illness.
Signs of poor planting material are:
- The presence of dry, rotten, damaged root processes. A healthy root should have a white-milk color on the cut, resembling a cut of potatoes. A dark, dry section of the slice indicates tissue necrosis.
- Lack of vaccination site. The grafting site should be clearly visualized on the stem of the seedling. If it is not, then it is better to refuse to purchase this material.
- The presence of a large number of leaves and a stiff trunk. The foliage that remains on the trunk “steals” a supply of moisture and nutrients from the plant, due to which it poorly takes root and, as a result, does not bear fruit well.
- The presence of dry, black vine and bark. Experts recommend making small cuts on the vine: in a healthy plant, they are moist, have a fresh green color. The dull color and lack of juice suggests that the planting material is “dead”. The same applies to the bark: its scraping sites should be green or gray.
Planting seedlings is recommended in the spring, when the risk of night return frosts is minimal. For Gala grapes, a well-lit area with no cold winds and drafts is perfect. The variety prefers loose, soft soils with an average degree of salinity. Before planting, you need to loosen the soil well so that it is enriched with oxygen and nutrients. Important! Since the variety belongs to plants with medium resistance to frost, it is better to refuse from planting it in autumn.
Before immersing the seedlings in the soil, they should be thoroughly “revised”: cut dry, rotten and too long root shoots, and treat the cut sites with chopped charcoal.
Further planting is recommended according to the following technology:
- Dig a recess measuring 80x80x80 cm.
- Line a drainage layer at the bottom of the pit, and a layer of fertile soil about 30 cm high on top.
- Add 2-3 pails of organic top dressing and superphosphate to the pit.
- Lower the seedling under a slight slope, in which shoots with at least 2-3 buds are present.
- Sprinkle the seedling approximately 10 cm under the topsoil, and top it with normal soil. Do not tamp.
- In the pit leave at the top the distance for watering the plant (about 5-10 cm).
- Around the hole, within a radius of 15 cm, make a groove, which is filled with mulch.
When planting several bushes, the distance between them should be at least 2.5 m.
Cultivation and care
Properly performed agricultural technology, which consists in watering, feeding, crop pruning and protecting it from pests, provides a stable and rich grape harvest.
Watering and fertilizer
Excessive watering is detrimental to Gala, so plants should be moistened correctly. The first hydration is carried out after planting, all subsequent ones as the soil dries. Most moisture is necessary for grapes during the growing season. At this time, it is abundantly moistened, pouring from 60 to 80 l, depending on weather conditions, into the holes dug around the bush, warm, settled water.
Irrigation should be stopped when the crop has entered the flowering phase. Due to the large amount of moisture, the flowers will begin to crumble, which will lead to a decrease in the amount of yield. You can also not water the grapes during the ripening period of the berries, as their skin will crack. To ensure the most competent hydration, it is necessary to organize a drainage irrigation system or make several indentations around the stem, with a depth of 35-40 cm.
We must not forget about the regular application of fertilizers, to which Gala reacts very positively. Organic and mineral products are recommended alternately. The first feeding is carried out immediately after winter, the second and subsequent - before and after the flowering period.
Important! Young plants can grow superbly without fertilizer. But cultures older than 3 years need at least three top dressings per season.
Trimming and shaping a bush
When caring for Gala, it is necessary to trim and form a bush. If this measure is neglected, the load on the plant will increase, which will negatively affect the size of the fruits and their taste.
Pruning should be done in early spring or autumn. During the autumn pruning, long shoots are shortened, leaving a maximum of 8 buds. At the same time, the total number of eyes on the bush should not exceed 45. The spring formation is aimed at removing dry, woody or weak shoots. In addition, with its help, crop volumes are normalized - two clusters are left on the part of the shoots, and one on the other part.
To save enough moisture in the soil, to protect grapes from weeds, to enrich the soil with oxygen and valuable components allows the mulching procedure, which is carried out throughout the entire growing season of the grapes, starting from the time of planting a seedling and ending with immersion in winter sleep. Various natural materials are perfect as mulch: sawdust, straw, hay, peat, humus. They are laid in a layer of 10 cm in small indentations dug around the bush.
Did you know? If parsley is sown under a bush of grapes, then it will be more healthy and strong. The thing is that greenery protects the plant from pests and inhibits the growth of weeds.
For the protective shelter of grapes for the winter, experts advise using two methods:
- Gather all branches of the bush carefully, knit with an elastic but not rigid rope, lay on a special bedding material and fix it.
- In the ground near the bush, install arcs of metal and pull a plastic film on them.
- Sprinkle the structure on all sides with soil in order to protect it from sudden gusts of wind or heavy snowfall.
- Collect the branches of the plant, tie, lay on a previously prepared litter.
- Sprinkle with a fairly large layer of soil.
The latter method can be practiced in regions with moderate climatic conditions, where temperature indicators in winter do not fall below -15 ° С.
Pest and disease protection
Due to its natural resistance to diseases (black and gray rot, oidium), as well as pests (ticks, aphids), Gala in rare cases needs protection. However, experts recommend for prevention to systematically treat the culture with modern fungicidal agents or a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
Did you know? To get one bottle of grape wine with a volume of 0.7 liters , you need to use about 600 berries.
Decontamination must be done before flowering and before harvesting. Additional treatment should be carried out in the rainy season or at too high temperature indicators, because it is moisture and heat that are the main sources of infection. The drugs Chorus, Acrobat, Tiovit, Topaz have good efficacy against ailments, and Condor, Neoron, and Aktellik against pests.
Grapes Gala - a high-yielding, unpretentious variety that is able to take its rightful place in the garden plots of many gardeners. Observing the main rules of agricultural technology and providing the plant with reliable protection against the harmful effects of external factors, it is possible to achieve large yields of very tasty, juicy and extremely healthy berries.