Cucumbers "German F1": variety description, cultivation and care
Beautiful, neat and even, as for the selection, and most importantly, delicious cucumbers, equally suitable for salads and for preservation, is the dream of any housewife. In 2001, the breeders of the Dutch agricultural company Monsanto bred a variety as close to ideal as possible. Consider why German F1 has gained such wide popularity, and what are the nuances of its cultivation.
Characteristics and description of the variety
This variety, which has a second name - Mirabell, is a hybrid, that is, a variety obtained by crossing several varieties. In the name, this is marked by the abbreviation F1 (“F” - from the Italian “filli”, that is, “children”, and “1” means the first generation). Hybrids are traditionally considered to be better in quality than ordinary varieties, and Herman is no exception.
Important! Herman is one of the few parthenocarpics suitable for all types of home cooking.
It is characterized by:
- rapid fruit growth (the first cucumbers will appear on your table 35–40 days after seedling emergence);
- prolonged fruiting (until mid-September);
- high productivity (up to 25–35 kg per 1 m²);
- dark green fruits with crispy flesh and small seeds;
- pleasant, delicate taste without a hint of bitterness (which is present in many ordinary garden varieties);
- smooth, cylindrical shape of the fruit with large tubercles;
- small size (gherkin variety), not exceeding 8-10 cm in length;
- fruit weight 70–90 g;
- fairly high (up to 2 m in the greenhouse) bushes and strong roots;
- determinism (the bush has an end point of growth);
- dark green, almost the same shade as the fruits, medium-sized leaves;
- high immunity to diseases such as viral mosaic, olive spotting, peronosporosis;
- lack of high-quality seed material for reproduction.
Herman belongs to parthenocarpic hybrids (plants on which only female species of flowers are formed, and therefore it does not need pollination and does not produce empty flowers, reducing yield).
Parthenocarpic varieties of cucumbers also include such as:
Parthenocarpics differ from other hybrids in that:
- can be grown both in open ground and in greenhouses;
- give a bunch of ovaries of fruits (in each ovary, 6–9 cucumbers);
- have a wonderful taste and juiciness (unlike other hybrids, whose taste qualities usually leave much to be desired);
- keep nutrients for a long time;
- able to withstand long transportation;
- retain their presentation even with untimely collection.
Pros and cons of the variety
- The benefits of growing this variety stem from its description. It:
- ultra-precocity and high fertility;
- great taste;
- resistance to most diseases;
- low demands on growing conditions;
- good keeping quality;
- beautiful presentation;
- lack of need for pollination;
- powerful bushes that do not break under the weight of the fruit.
- The few disadvantages of the variety include:
- susceptibility to fungal disease - brown rust on the leaves;
- increased fragility at the stage of growing seedlings;
- frost intolerance.
Optimal time for landing
Experienced gardeners recommend growing this variety in seedlings. Sowing of seeds is carried out in the second half of April in order to plant seedlings in open ground by the end of May. If seedlings are planted in a greenhouse, then planting is carried out in February-March, so that the first fruits begin to ripen in mid-spring. Important! Seeds must be purchased from authorized Seminis distributors. Original seeds are always treated with a pesticide (tiram) and are colored red, green or purple. Unpainted seeds are counterfeit. As for the seedlingless method, it can be used in the southern regions, which are characterized by the absence of temperature extremes and return night frosts that are detrimental to productivity. Sowing in this case is carried out under the condition of well-warmed (up to + 18 ° С) soil and night temperature not less than + 8 ° С.
Planting and technology for growing cucumbers
Depending on the method of planting, not only the timing varies, but also the growing technology. Next, consider the intricacies of both methods.
In addition to acquiring seeds, you should choose the right soil. Recommended Reading
For the hybrid under consideration, medium loamy, with small cracks and acidity of 5.6–7.2, breathable soils with such previous crops are suitable :
You should not place the crops of cucumbers in the ground, where other representatives of pumpkin and beets grew. Garden soil needs to be combined with peat and humus. Before sowing, the ground must be disinfected by steaming in the oven. To increase air permeability and friability, porous perlite material can be added to the soil.
The Herman hybrid F1 has very weak seedlings, so you need to sow the seeds immediately in fairly spacious containers.
The algorithm for planting and seedling care is as follows:
- Soaking and additionally processing seeds purchased in the original packaging is not necessary so as not to destroy the layer of fungicide and growth stimulant applied by the manufacturer.
- Seeds are placed in wells with a depth of 1.5-2 cm, irrigated with warm water and covered with a film. If seedlings are grown in a heated greenhouse, then the pots are not covered with anything.
- Tanks with seedlings are placed at a small distance from each other.
- There should be holes in the bottom of the pots to allow excess moisture to escape (to prevent stagnation and black rot).
- The temperature in the room with seedlings should be at least + 20 ° С, in the greenhouse - about + 25 ° С.
- Watering seedlings is carried out once a week.
- Seedlings love light, but not direct sunlight. With a lack of stray light, LED lamps are used.
- In a room with seedlings drafts are not permissible.
The germination of seeds in this hybrid is high (90-100%). Shoots usually appear on day 3. 20-25 days after sowing, seedlings can be transplanted into the open ground, provided that the night frosts have passed and the soil has warmed up to + 18 ° С. Important! Fresh seed dung, tea leaves, and unripe leaves cannot be added to seedlings. These components will begin to decompose actively, generating heat and adversely affecting the composition of the soil. German hybrid seedlings are very fragile, therefore it is best to transplant them from the pots together with the earth, without digging, so as not to injure the roots. 2 hours before planting, seedlings must be watered. Seedlings are placed in holes pretreated with fertilizers and poured with potassium permanganate 10-12 cm deep.
Determining the place of sowing, you need to consider the following requirements for the garden:
- protection from the wind;
- location on a flat terrain (the garden both in the lowland and on the hill creates problems with humidity and temperature changes);
- good illumination during the day (but not under direct sunlight, but in partial shade);
- the soil should be well loosened and contain humus and compost, as well as fertilizers (ash, urea, superphosphate).
It is easiest to sow the seeds in an ordinary way (with a row spacing of about 65 cm and a distance between future bushes of 10-15 cm). As with the seedling method, the seeds go deeper into the wells of 1.5-2 cm, after which the beds are mulched and, if there is no firm belief that the frost has finally passed, cover with polyethylene.
Did you know? Cucumbers and tomatoes should not be mixed in a salad. A traditional summer dish, it turns out, is dangerous to health. Tomatoes form an acidic environment, cucumbers - alkaline. And when interacting in the human body, salts begin to be deposited, damaging the kidneys.
Cucumber care after planting
Herman is quite unpretentious and does not require excessive efforts to care for him. However, there are some points that gardeners growing this variety should know about.
Top dressing and watering
Watering is key to moisture-loving plants such as cucumbers.
Water them in accordance with the following recommendations:
- water should be warm;
- watered on average once every 3 days;
- the frequency of watering depends on the age of the bushes (young shoots are watered more often, but with smaller volumes of water);
- in rainy weather, the frequency of irrigation is reduced;
- water cucumbers preferably in the early morning or evening;
- after watering, you need to loosen the soil around the bushes to improve moisture capacity.
As for fertilizers, you should not be too zealous with the introduction of synthetic fertilizers. Otherwise, a lot of leaves will appear on the bush to the detriment of fruit setting.
Feeding is carried out once every 1-2 weeks, using:
- nitrogen-potassium complexes, such as Agriflex, Megafol (after the appearance of the first fruits).
How to form in open ground
Bouquet (bunch) type of fruiting, thanks to which Herman is famous for its high productivity, causes the formation of a bush in one stem:
- In the lower part of the stem with 4 leaves, all the ovaries and shoots are completely removed.
- In the next three nodes, the ovaries are removed, and the rudiments of the shoots are left.
- In the third zone (the next three nodes), both the ovaries and shoots are preserved, but the latter are pinched, leaving one sheet with ovaries on each.
- In the remaining axils of the leaves, two leaves are left, and in the uppermost shoots the ovaries are not pinched at all.
- When the bush reaches a height of 1-1.5 m, pinch the top, and the stem itself is tied to a support (trellis).
Pinching and tying allows you to provide a high level of illumination for the stem and get the maximum yield. However, according to many gardeners, pinching is not mandatory for this variety.
Weeding and loosening the soil
As already mentioned, the soil is loosened after irrigation. This is done with a chopper and very carefully because of the surface occurrence of the roots. The same applies to weeding, which occurs not in close proximity to plants, but in the aisle. Both weeding and cultivation are carried out before flowering begins.
Diseases and pests of the variety
The most common disease of this variety is the so-called rust, that is, a fungus that leaves yellow spots on the leaves.
For preventive purposes, young bushes are treated once with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. Find out in more detail what to do if rusty spots appear on the cucumbers. Herman is very resistant to all other diseases (fusarium, powdery mildew, mosaic), but insect pests can negatively affect the health of the bush.
- gall nematode;
- spider mite.
Insecticides are used to get rid of pests:
In addition, aphids are manually harvested from leaves. Compliance with the rules for caring for the bushes (weeding, loosening, pinching) reduces the likelihood of infection by insects. Did you know? In the USA, the Christmas tradition is widespread, according to which, in addition to ordinary toys, a pickle (or a toy copy) is hung on the tree. A child who finds a cucumber receives a special gift from his parents and, as it is believed, a good fortune for the whole year.
Herman actively bears fruit throughout the summer, right up to the first autumn colds. It is recommended to collect fruits every 2 days, cutting them off with scissors (for the prevention of decay of hemp).
Parthenocarpics do not grow too large, but, if not torn in time, can inhibit the appearance of new cucumbers. Shelf life in fresh form is 7 days. Store cucumbers in a cool place. The variety is great for pickles and pickles.
For less than 20 years of cultivation, German F1 has conquered gardeners around the world with his precocity, excellent presentation, plentiful fruiting and taste. It does not require complicated care and does not bother owners with too frequent illnesses.
Following the simple rules discussed in the article, you can get an excellent harvest and enjoy the juicy taste of fresh, fragrant cucumbers or pickle them for the winter.