Cucumber variety Chinese miracle: description, characteristics, cultivation and care
Chinese cucumbers are called more than ten varieties of vegetable culture, bred in China. All these varieties are distinguished by an elongated fruit shape, similar external characteristics and taste. Russian breeders managed to bring out their hybrid called the Chinese miracle. Next, we will talk about the rules of agricultural technology of cucumbers of domestic selection.
Let us consider in more detail the characteristics of the described hybrid.
Did you know? Cucumbers The Chinese miracle has an interesting feature: if you need to cook a salad, cut a piece of the desired length from the growing green stuff, and the rest can continue to develop on a whip without problems.
Description of the bush and fruits
The Chinese miracle has the following botanical features:
- tall bushes (up to 2–4 m);
- grow exclusively upward, not branching much on the sides (close proximity of bushes is permissible in order to save space in the garden);
- female flowers grow on the main lash and stepsons;
- pollination occurs both by self-pollination and by the cross way (fruit-bearing will be richer when planting on a bed of other varieties);
- greens are cylindrical, with a slight curvature;
- cucumbers have a thin peel and rarely located small tubercles;
- the dense inner part of the fruit is juicy, without bitterness;
- cucumbers grow to 60 cm;
- by weight, one cucumber an average of 650–655 g.
The timing of flowering and ripening, fruitfulness
This variety at the beginning of the growing season lags behind in development from short-fruited. Although flowering and ovary occur later, the plant can subsequently catch up and even overtake other varieties in the fruit collection. Zelentsy during the day can grow by 15 cm, and the next day they can already be collected. Another interesting feature of the variety is that the sooner the first crop is picked, the more new cucumbers will form. Productivity is high: one bush for the entire growing season produces up to 30 kg of high-quality fruits.
Did you know? For the first time, cucumbers were grown in greenhouses for the Roman emperor Tiberius, since he liked to eat these vegetables daily throughout the year.
Pros and possible disadvantages of the variety
If we compare the hybrid under consideration with other varieties, then an important nuance is that many types of greenery can be consumed only fresh. The products of the described variety are universal: Zelentsy is used both for fresh consumption and in canning.
- Among other advantages include:
- high yields;
- aesthetic appearance of products and large sizes;
- high taste;
- survival in different climatic zones;
- immunity to diseases and pests.
- The disadvantages of the variety are:
- low percentage of germination of seed material;
- powerful plants that require binding;
- high demand for plentiful watering;
- instability to temperature jumps;
- low indicators of keeping quality, because of which the crop is immediately consumed or processed.
Sowing and growing technology
The Chinese miracle is grown on an open bed and in hotbeds. With both methods of planting, it is permissible to sow cucumber seeds directly into the soil, but it is preferable to plant seedlings.
Important! Since Chinese miracle cucumbers have powerful roots, they need containers for seedlings with a volume of at least 500 ml, which need to be filled with loose and nutritious soil with an acidity Ph from 6.5 to 7.0.
In the open ground
Although these are fairly cold-resistant cucumbers, in a cool environment, seedlings inhibit growth. Seedlings are planted in unprotected soil only at a confident air temperature near the levels of + 18 ... + 20 ° C (second or third decades of May).
Technology planting seedlings on an open garden:
- The place for planting seedlings is chosen taking into account sufficient illumination, with draft protection, on the southern side of the garden, but without direct exposure to sunlight.
- In the case of increased acidity of the soil, even in the autumn, chalk, slaked lime or ready-made alkaline organic fertilizers are introduced into it (optional).
- On the selected and prepared beds, ridges are formed (up to 30 cm in height) in wide ridges, leaving up to 80 cm in the row spacing.
- A day before planting, cucumbers in containers need to be watered so that the bush can then be easily removed.
- They dig holes in the bed 20 cm deep (the size of the root system in a container with seedlings).
- Seedlings are carefully removed from the containers without disturbing the earthen lump.
- Each bush is placed 25-30 cm from each other.
- Plants are laid in the ground so that their root necks remain 2 cm above the ground.
- The soil around each seedling needs to be slightly tamped.
Video: planting seedlings of cucumbers in the open ground
In the greenhouse
It is permissible to plant cucumber seedlings in a greenhouse or greenhouse 2 weeks earlier than in open ground. When planting cucumbers in a greenhouse, the sequence of actions is similar, as is the case with an open garden bed, but there are some nuances:
- Dig the soil in the greenhouse with the addition of a mixture of wood ash and sawdust (3 kg per 1 m²).
- Prepare planting beds with a width of 80 cm, and in the middle make ditches in the depth and width of about 25 cm.
- Shredded straw is poured into the ditches, half their depth, and the substrate extracted from it, also connected to the straw and impregnated with complex mineral fertilizer for cucumbers, is laid on top of it.
- The soil in the greenhouse is allowed to warm up for several days before planting.
- In the ditches, pits are prepared with a depth of 25 cm and the same step between them.
- Before each well, before planting, a warm 1% manganese solution is first poured to disinfect the soil, and later moistened with clean water.
- Seedlings are planted in the holes, leaving the root necks 1-2 cm open, the ground under the bushes is carefully tamped and mulched.
Video: planting cucumber seedlings in a greenhouse
Cucumbers of this variety are demanding for good care.
Important! When feeding cucumbers, one should not exceed the concentration of nutrients recommended by the manufacturer, since this threatens to burn the roots.
Watering and fertilizing
A quality crop of cucumbers can be obtained only if the correct schedule of irrigation and fertilizer is observed. Cucumbers are watered according to the following rules:
- The best time for irrigation is the first part of the day.
- Irrigation water is used exclusively heated.
- Cucumbers should not be watered under the root system, since the soil is so easily washed off from it, and it begins to dry out. It is not worth watering in the drip way, since wet foliage and the main lash will begin to rot. The best method of watering cucumbers is in dug grooves between plants.
- Cucumbers are watered abundantly as the land dries under the bushes: in cool weather - every 7 days, in dry weather - at least twice a week. Water consumption - 5 liters per 1 m² of beds.
- If the plants have excessively thick foliage, you should sometimes skip irrigation, since the growth of green mass will take away the nutrition needed by the emerging green foliage.
- At the first flowering, as well as with massive fruiting, watering is increased, moistening the soil 1 time in 3 days, pouring 10 liters of water per 1 m².
Top dressing is made according to this scheme:
- Before budding and at the beginning of fruiting. Apply means "Vermistim", "Azogran" (according to instructions).
- Every 10-14 days, complex fertilizers are used: purchased BioGumus, Agricola, Zdraven mixtures or prepared independently (water infusion of weeds in a ratio of 1: 5).
- Increases productivity by spraying the lower side of the foliage with a urea solution (15 g per 10 l of water) once every 2-3 weeks.
We advise you to learn about feeding cucumbers during flowering and fruiting.
Garter and bush formation
Since the described cucumbers give abundant crops and have long lashes, their bushes need strong supports. Thin twine or twine, which is tied to the roof of the greenhouse, will not be able to hold powerful tall bushes. In an open bed, winds can aggravate the situation. It is necessary to preliminarily think over suitable support structures and place them correctly on the site (stable grids, trellises, poles with stretched rows of wire).
Seedlings, reaching a height of 50 cm, need to be formed:
- The side lower lashes are cut off at the growth point, forming the main lash (no more than 5 branches are removed).
- As the culture grows, extra lateral shoots are cut off, observing a distance of about 30 cm between them (this is important to do, otherwise less “female” flowers will form).
- Pinch the main shoots when they reach the top of the supporting structure. It is also permissible to throw the lashes over the crossbar or simply let them hang and sprout down.
Video: the formation of cucumbers in the open ground
Further agricultural technology for growing cucumbers A Chinese miracle is to care for the soil:
- Cucumber bushes planted on a permanent bed must be mulched. This will help retain moisture and prevent weeds from growing. For this, crushed straw, dry nettles or sawdust of deciduous trees are used (the use of coniferous sawdust is unacceptable, since such wood contains resins that inhibit these plants).
- After each watering, to obtain the necessary oxygen from the roots of the cucumbers, you need to loosen the soil under the plants.
- It is important to regularly remove weeds so that they do not absorb the nutrients necessary for the development and growth of the crop.
Pest and Disease Control
Chinese cucumber is rarely exposed to disease and pest attack, mainly due to inaccuracies in care.
Diseases that can affect Zelentsy of this variety:
- Powdery Mildew Manifested by the appearance of a whitish coating on the inside of the leaves. Later, the plaque spreads from the outside of the leaves and darkens, due to which the fruits grow twisted and tasteless. The product “Oksikhom” (20 g per 10 l of water) will help to cope with the problem, which is sprayed with bushes in the evening (repeat after 2 weeks).
- Downy mildew (peronosporosis). Leaves are strewn with rounded yellow spots, and later with purple bloom. The leaves curl outward and dry. The disease can be eliminated by treating the plants with Topaz (1 ampoule is dissolved in 10 liters of water) in three treatments with a break of 2 weeks.
- Alternariosis. The lower leaves are covered with many light brown convex small specks. After a while, specks spread to a larger number of foliage, and then merge. Alternaria is fought by spraying a solution of fungicide "Ridomil Gold" (50 g per 10 liters of water). Sprayed in the evening or in cloudy weather in two or three calls (with a break of 2 weeks).
- Anthracnose. Brown oblong depressions are found on the main lash, and leaves are covered with rounded brown spots. As a result of the defeat, Zelentsy begin to rot quickly. Eliminate the problem with Oxychom (according to the same scheme as in the case of powdery mildew).
Parasites that attack cucumbers Chinese miracle:
- Aphid. The bushes are covered with small light green or black insects. As a result of their activities, culture is depleted and ceases to bear fruit. The Fitoverm insecticide (6 ml per 1 liter of water) will help fight the parasite. Two sprayings are carried out with a break of two weeks.
- Spider mite. Under the leaves, small white-dirty clumps appear that look like cotton wool, and the young foliage, buds and ovaries of the parasites are entwined with a thin web. The fight is carried out by spraying with acaricides "Aktofit", "Karbofos", "Inta-Vir." A minimum of five treatments are needed with a 5-day interval (acaricides must be alternated to avoid getting used to the pest).
Harvesting and storage of crops
Cucumbers The Chinese miracle is a medium-late variety: the first fruit harvest begins 60 days after the emergence of sprouts, and can last until autumn (in an open garden) or until winter (in a greenhouse). The fruits are removed every four days, but if they are not harvested, for example, a week, they will not overripe and will not turn yellow, and the seeds will not grow and become coarse. The collected products are not stored for a long time (after a day it fades and loses its juiciness), so it should be consumed immediately.
Did you know? Europeans are lovers of cucumbers with smooth skin without spikes, and Zelentsy with thorns are called cucumbers in "Russian shirts", since it is these fruits that are most valued in Russia.
If it is necessary to keep the fruits fresh, they are washed, wrapped with cling film and placed in the refrigerator. Thus, the shelf life of fresh greens is extended to 5 days. Zelentsy is used in cooking as an ingredient in salads, appetizers, for sandwiches, or they make preparations for winter. For preservation, the fruits are removed by the size of the containers or cut in parts. Any dishes from such cucumbers taste good.