Cow of the Swiss breed: description, care and feeding
Cattle breeding, or cattle for short, people began to engage in the earliest period of human development, constantly improving the breed, depending on their needs. So, there are cows meat, dairy and universal. The latter are especially popular, and their brightest representative is Schwyz.
Schwyz cows were introduced in the 14th century in the canton of the same name Schwyz, which is located in Switzerland. From there, the breed spread throughout the world and is now bred on all continents. It is considered universal, as it is suitable for producing high-quality milk and meat at the same time. For these basic indicators, the breed can be characterized as follows:
|Horns||Small, hollow inside or completely absent|
|Head||Medium with a wide forehead|
|Neck||Muscular but short, wrinkled|
|Rib cage||Moderately broad and deep, with pronounced muscles|
|Body||Folded proportionally, long, wide|
|Muscle||Pronounced in the chest, on the legs|
|Skeleton||Thin but strong|
|Limbs||Muscular, regular, even, ending with two-toed hooves|
|Height at withers in centimeters||from 130 to 150|
Advantages and disadvantages
Pinworms are especially popular in their country of origin. Famous Swiss cheese is made from their milk. They are also widely distributed in Germany, Italy, Austria, America. But on the expanses of the former USSR, pedigree cows are a rarity.
- This phenomenon is difficult to explain, because the breed has a large number of positive qualities, namely:
- strong immune system;
- quick acclimatization and adaptability regardless of weather conditions;
- even character, characterized by calm and peacefulness;
- fairly high reproductive rates;
- rapid growth and development.
- Cons are few, but they are still there. The main ones:
- selectivity and some finicky in nutrition;
- low milk yield, namely: about a liter per minute;
- the structure of the udder in some individuals does not allow them to be milked automatically.
Maintenance and care
The Shvitsky cow breed is considered rather unpretentious in leaving and keeping. She does not need to create any special conditions in comparison with other cows. Of course, how much milk and meat gives a burenka directly depends on the way of life and nutrition.
Important! Be sure to keep clean not only the stall, but the animal itself. The cow is regularly recommended to wash and comb out to avoid skin and other diseases.
Summer walking area
Even if cows are constantly kept in cowsheds, they still need fresh air and movement. To do this, near the cowsheds they make the so-called walking grounds. If the livestock is large, then animals can be placed there alternately. As a rule, bulls can walk there year-round, but cows are not recommended to be taken to frost because of the risk of damage to the udder by cold.
A site in size should be made at the rate of 8 to 15 square meters. m per adult animal. For calves, this indicator can be reduced by a third, and for breeding - doubled. The place of walking should be equipped with feeders with roughage such as hay. At the site, you need to drain the stool to prevent diseases, and solid excrement needs to be cleaned regularly. An important moment is the presence of awnings in the place of walking. They provide shade, and, accordingly, there the animals rest and cool in hot weather.
Settlement of a barn
When arranging a barn, it is important to consider not only your own capabilities, but also generally accepted standards. Animals must be kept in reasonable conditions. They should not be crowded, they need an influx of fresh air, they should be warm in winter and enough food. So, it is recommended to build cowsheds with a height of at least two and a half meters. The animal should be located in place or, in other words, in a stall with a width of at least 170 cm and a length of more than 2 m. The cow should be free to sit in it and be able to lie down, because in this position it is up to 14 hours a day. To optimize the space in the stall, you can install a mounted or corner feeder.
Equally important in a barn are properly designed and constructed gutters. The floor should be made at a slight angle, so that animal excrement flows into the ditches. They should not stagnate, their regular washing is obligatory. In general, the lack of proper hygiene in the barn leads to diseases and, ultimately, to the death of livestock.
Important! In no case should cattle be kept on a concrete cold floor. This leads to limb diseases and bronchial problems.
Conditions of detention
There should be constant access to fresh air to the place of residence, so ventilation is mandatory in the ceiling area and through the windows. The only thing to avoid while doing this is drafts. The latter are harmful to animals, they can easily catch a cold. That is why it is recommended to place the windows at the level of the end of the withers of the cow, and this is approximately at the level of one and a half meters. The cow house should also have enough windows for sunlight. The window should be for every 10-12 square meters. m barn. Animals must distinguish between day and night, the yield of milk is very dependent on the regimen. With a lack of lighting in the daytime and in the evening, you need to turn on the light until night, that is, until their sleep.
If the gutters work correctly in the barn, then the urine will not accumulate in them, but will go to the places of discharge. Ditches must be washed so that the air is not stale and harmful microorganisms and bacteria do not form. There should also be a flooring that needs to be cleaned periodically. As a rule, heavy excrement is cleaned once a day, but if there is a lot of waste, this should be done twice. Flooring changes as it gets dirty. Ideally, it should be changed once a day.
Did you know? Cows, like humans, can cry.
Schwitz cows must be fed with high quality dry and succulent feeds. You can dilute them with mixed feed, vegetables. It is worth noting that these cows are often finicky in food, so feed is recommended to change and diversify. If cattle is stall, then in summer it is simply necessary to include fresh grass in the diet, in addition to hay. Milk yields from this increase significantly. Most Schwitz love alfalfa, clover, peas.
Summer walk in the pasture
In summer, of course, the best will be the withdrawal of cows in the pasture. At their best, these cows should graze in a meadow with succulent perennial grasses. If the cow grazes in the meadow, then she does not need additional food in the stall. It’s enough to drink the animal well.
Differences in winter feeding
In the winter season, the diet of the Swiss cow should also consist of succulent and dry feed. The first ones at this time of year are replaced by vegetables; straw, cake, hay are suitable from dry ones. In the morning and evening you need to add feed to them. In winter, animals need additional vitamins and minerals, so they also give salt, bone meal.
Schwick cows need water in large quantities. This is due to the fact that milk is more than 80% water, and this breed gives it in large quantities. As a rule, the right amount of water is calculated from the fact that an animal needs 3-4 liters of water to produce one liter of milk. Shvitsa drink up to 10 times a day from 10 to 20 liters. They drink especially much after eating and eating dry food. The optimum temperature of the liquid should be at the level of + 15-17 ° С. In winter, it must be heated. At this time of the year you can not give water, the temperature of which is below +10 ° C, this is fraught with diseases. It is important to keep drinkers clean and constantly clean them of plaque.