The content of pigs at home
Pig farming is a highly productive sector with short livestock production times. A newcomer to agribusiness needs knowledge of advanced farming methods and growing technologies that will give a competitive advantage and increase income.
How to raise pigs
The health and meat productivity of pigs is directly dependent on the diet and conditions of detention. A pig assimilates more than a third of food consumed and for fattening it needs 30–35% less food than, for example, cows. In this regard, it is recommended to carefully study the topic of the correct diet and not to save on feed, as it will pay off handsomely. As for breeding conditions, pigs are kept both on large farms and on personal subsidiary plots.
It should be remembered that:
- Keeping on the street is permissible in the warm season. In winter, animals will need a roof over their heads and protection from frost.
- Growing pigs in special pits in the domestic climate does not justify itself: animals can begin to get sick.
- If you want to raise pigs, you can also in the summer cottage, but in this case it is especially important to remember the veterinary and sanitary standards. Under standard 6 acres, only one piglet is allowed to be kept, whose stable should be at least 15 m away from residential buildings.
Pig Breeding for Beginners
Starting to grow, you must first decide on the purpose of your business. Animals are raised both for subsequent sale by live weight, and fed for meat. Many beginning farmers choose the first type of activity, as it is quite profitable and least costly, both in terms of time and finances for the purchase of feed.
Fattening for meat, although it requires large financial injections and scrupulous study of the theoretical base, but makes it possible not only to provide yourself with a tasty, high-quality product, but also to make money on it.
Regardless of the chosen direction, each entrepreneur (even a summer resident) must register his activity with the appropriate government body.
Breeding pig selection
If the choice is made in favor of fattening, then the division of all breeds into:
Meat quickly gain muscle mass and meat yield is 60–65%.
Learn more about the meat selection pig features.
To include meat:
- English white large;
- Cornish black;
Sebaceous fat is characterized by a thick layer of fat in the carcass, built up by an appropriate diet.
- Belarusian black and white;
- North Caucasian.
Tender meat of bacon pigs is penetrated by fatty layers, which makes it possible to make bacon slices from it.
Such breeds are considered:
- Estonian bacon
- pigs pockets.
Necessary conditions for keeping piglets
You need to prepare for the placement of animals on the farm in advance, thinking through all the nuances.
The room should be warm and dry. A mandatory element is a clean litter of sawdust or shavings. Do not forget about windows and ventilation openings equipped with frames with a net to prevent the penetration of rodents.
Important! Pigs do not like too much light. It causes them aggression. The total area of windows should not exceed 20% of the floor area.
Any crib consists of three parts:
- a room for pigs;
- space for walking;
- swimming pool.
The most important thing in the feeder is its volume (at least 2 buckets of feed). The best material for feeders is iron. The feeding trough should be located not on the floor, but on a certain elevation, but so that it was convenient for the animals to approach it.
Drinking bowls for pigs and piglets
Do not forget about the drinking regimen. Regardless of the material from which they are made, drinkers should be clean, airtight and durable, with an uninterrupted supply of water. An ideal option would be to install a water heater to prevent freezing of the liquid in winter.
The taste of future meat products depends on a balanced diet. Pigs cannot be fed exclusively from the kitchen.
To obtain high-quality pork, the following feeds are required:
- cereals (barley, rye, peas);
- juicy (beets, potatoes, carrots, pumpkin);
- coarse (hay flour);
- green (alfalfa, clover, nettle);
- animals (dairy products, meat waste).
Corn and bran are not the best choice, and their amount in the diet should not exceed 50%. Soy, cake and oats significantly reduce the quality of meat and fat.
Combined feed consists of a mixture of grain, herbs, bean flour, vitamins. You can cook them yourself or purchase ready-made ones.
Find out what exists and how to cook independently feed and growth stimulator for pigs.
Veterinary pharmacology offers a lot of drugs to increase productivity and better development of animals:
- steroids for growth;
- enzymatic additives for better absorption of feed;
Veterinary Sanitary Rules
As already mentioned, pets are regulated by veterinary and sanitary standards.
The basic rules for the placement of a pigsty with an area of not more than 50 m² on a site include:
- Remoteness of the barn from residential buildings is not less than 15 m, cesspool - not less than 20 m.
- Fencing compound from wild animals.
- The surfaces of the crib, feeders and drinking bowls should be regularly washed and disinfected.
- The strength of the floor in the pigsty, it is best to make it out of concrete. Wood planks can rot, leading to morbidity.
- Planting density 0.35–0.4 m² / goal for piglets, 0.8–1 m² for adults.
Disease Prevention Measures
The primary prevention of disease is adherence to diet and hygiene. During the growing period, regular monitoring of the condition of the animals (behavior, feed intake, water intake) should be carried out.
If necessary, contact veterinary services. Slaughter of animals is carried out under conditions that exclude carcass contamination.
Pigs start offspring early. On average, they reach puberty at the age of six months, some breeds earlier. Particularly important is the issue of animal breeding for farmers focused on the sale of pedigree piglets.
Despite early puberty, it is best to have young pigs at the age of 8–10 months, when they have finally formed mammary glands and can count on high maternal qualities, multiple pregnancy, and viable young growth.
Before fertilization, the uterus must be healthy, without signs of obesity. Its weight should be about 120-130 kg. The male and female are selected based on the breed and physical characteristics.
The case is divided into:
- manual (mating with selected females).
Learn more about the features of mating pigs.
In vitro fertilization is considered more effective. The likelihood of fertilization increases, since the seminal fluid is injected into the genital tract of the uterus by a veterinarian using medical instruments.
On average, sows become pregnant for about 4 months (101 to 126 days).
The term depends on:
- the age of the female (young individuals bring offspring earlier);
- multiple pregnancy (the more piglets, the earlier the birth);
- season (in winter the period decreases slightly).
When to castrate piglets
Castration (sucking) of piglets is carried out in order to improve the quality of meat and prevent the development of aggression in the future in young boars. There is no consensus on the age of freezing. Early castration of 10-14 days leads to less blood loss and less painful. At the same time, non-castrated pigs located on a suction are more actively developing. One way or another, one should keep in mind the need to differentiate the time of castration, vaccination and deworming procedures.
There are two ways to castrate:
Did you know? The European Animal Welfare Group is active in banning castration. In 2013, a conference on this topic was held in France. Zoodefenders insist that this procedure adversely affects the physiological state of animals and suggest replacing the surgical operation with a chemical one.
Systems and methods for keeping pigs
There are two main methods of content, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Pigs are kept on a special platform in the open air from mid-spring until the first autumn frosts. This method has a beneficial effect on the condition of animals and their reproductive functions, but requires the cost of erecting sunscreens and awnings. The method will work well for small farms.
On large farms, the method of placement in cages or stalls is more often used. However, this method of breeding often has a bad effect on the livelihoods of pigs and requires the owners to carefully monitor the temperature, microclimate, lighting and cleanliness in the stable.
Actual are two innovative technologies developed by international leaders in the field of pig breeding - Canada and Denmark.
Canadian pig breeding
Pigs are kept in large unheated hangars on a thick layer of straw bedding. The temperature is maintained at + 15 ... + 20 ° С due to straw, or rather bacteria living in it. Given the low cost of straw and the lack of need to heat the crib, Canadian technology allows you to increase profitability by almost 2 times.
This technology involves the construction of a pigsty with:
- automated feed and water supply lines;
- slotted floors equipped with a manure removal system;
- comfortable lairs for heating piglets with infrared lamps.
This approach reduces labor costs, but requires serious financial investments, so it is used on large farms.
How to kill a pig
It is necessary to cut a pig when its weight becomes maximum.
Learn more about how to slaughter and slaughter a pig at home.
You can also not overfeed her. If within two weeks the weight does not change with the previous diet, the pig can be slaughtered.
There are two main methods of slaughter:
- a blow to the neck;
- heart beat.
Not all carcasses are released for sale. The term “lethal yield” includes meat, lard, skin and head. Typically, slaughter yield is about 75%. However, offal (liver, lungs, heart) can also be sold.
How to find out the weight of a pig
Take a closer look
There is a special table according to which, knowing such parameters as the length of the body and the circumference of the body behind the shoulder blades, one can obtain data on weight.
If there is no table at hand, then you can multiply the girth of the body by length and divide by a factor of 142 (for greasy pigs) or 156 (for medium-sized meat individuals).
Features of keeping pigs in winter
As already mentioned, in the cold season, pigs need to be indoors. These animals do not require too greenhouse conditions, it is enough to maintain a temperature of +12 ... + 18 ° С in winter.
Drafts that can lead to illness should be avoided. That is why it is necessary to insulate windows and close up cracks in the walls. A thick layer of straw is placed in the machines, which serves as a heater and pigs like to dig into it with their heads.
Important! The longer the pig is fattened, the higher the percentage of the sebaceous layer and the lower the yield of meat and its quality.
Food and drink should be warm.
The diet should be diversified:
- fruit and vegetable peelings;
- fish oil;
- in chalk.
Normal temperature in pigs
Finding normal temperature values is an indicator of health for all living things. For pigs, such a norm is +38 ... + 39.5 ° C for adults, up to + 40 ° C in piglets. A temperature exceeding the norm indicates the presence of a disease. The farmer should always have a thermometer and a veterinarian’s contact number on hand.
As can be seen from the above, the maintenance costs depend on the breeding method.
Whatever technology you prefer, when embarking on raising pigs, you need to draw up an estimate that includes such costs:
- pigsty construction;
- the acquisition of piglets;
- vaccinations and veterinarian services.
Did you know? Slaughter of pigs for centuries has been an integral part of winter festivals in Western Europe. Until now, in many villages you can find traditional ceremonies, sometimes even with a masquerade. In some regions, it is customary to give meat to neighbors.
Profitability can be calculated by knowing the average weight of a pig and the market price of meat. In addition, the profitability of pig breeding directly depends on the cultivation technology, on whether expensive automated equipment is used, feed is produced independently or purchased in specialized stores.
Pig farming is traditionally considered a lucrative field of activity suitable for beginners in agriculture. However, as in any type of business, you need to master the theoretical base and only then proceed with cultivation. It is difficult to guarantee a certain percentage of income, since it depends on many factors, including the changing economic environment. But in any case, a quality product will always find its buyer.