Compound feed for cattle: composition, production technology

Nutrients and microelements are necessary not only for people, but also for animals to ensure their health, active life and good performance when it comes to agricultural species. In this article you will learn about compound feeds that are used to feed cattle (cattle), their purpose, types, composition and how useful or harmful they are.

What is feed?

Feeding animals is a very important process that requires a lot of attention. In order for the cattle to not get sick, have good immunity and performance, it needs a high-quality and properly balanced diet. This is what compound feed is.

This is a mixture of plant components and ingredients of animal origin, which are combined in a certain balance. The proportion of components should be scientifically sound and contain vitamins, enzymes, micro and macro elements. Such a combined diet can be both the basis of the animal’s diet, and in addition to the basic diet.

The composition of the feed depends on:

  • what kind of animal the animal belongs to, since the combined feed for small pets will differ significantly from its variety for cattle;
  • the age category to which the animal belongs, since the nutrition of young animals differs in composition from the diet for an adult cash cow or breeding bull;
  • biological condition of livestock;
  • directions (meat, dairy);
  • degree of productivity.

Important! The recipe is created in accordance with scientifically sound data and can only be used for the type of animal for which it was developed.


Before you talk about what feed is made of, you should pay attention to the fact that the nutrition for each animal is selected individually, taking into account its need for certain elements and substances.

The main components of combined nutrition for cattle are:

  • cereals, among which the most popular ones are barley, wheat, millet, corn, triticale. This group occupies almost 85% of the total composition;
  • meal - pieces, cake of flax, sunflower, soy, which are obtained in the process of production of oils from plant seeds. Their share can reach 15-25%;
  • legumes that are high in protein - soybeans, beans, chickpeas, peas, lupins. These components can make up to 45% of some types of compound feeds;
  • roughage containing fiber (hay and straw);
  • grain industry waste;
  • mineral elements and compositions;
  • amino acids;
  • fortified impurities;
  • biostimulants;
  • meat and bone meal;
  • coniferous and herbal flour;
  • meat and fish waste;
  • highly refined salt;
  • antibiotics.

The combination of components takes into account:

  • their chemical composition;
  • the ability to assimilate in one or another combination.

When choosing feed, you should pay attention to it:

  • nutritional value;
  • protein content as a percentage. If it is not high, then the feed is not of very good quality, because it will not be able to satisfy the needs of the animal’s body, which varies depending on the age of the animal.

Using a balanced and correctly selected compound feed, you can increase the productivity of cows by 10%, if the compound feed contains vitamins, trace elements and stimulants, productivity can increase by 25-30%.

Did you know? Lick salt is a type of mineral dressing, the basis of which is sodium. It is often a component of feed, helping to improve the appetite of cattle, good absorption of food and, as a result, an increase in milk yield. Salt in the form of pressed blocks is suspended in the barn so that the animal has access to it as necessary.

For cows

Combined feeds, including feed grains, are used for milk-producing cows with the aim of obtaining fatty and high-quality milk:

  • barley, the content of which should prevail in comparison with other components;
  • wheat;
  • oats.

The table below contains the quality requirements for feed for stall and dairy cows.


Exchange energy10 MJ
Crude fatnot less than 2.5%
Crude proteinno more than 7%
Methionine, not less-
Methionine + cystine-
Sodium Chloride1-1.5%

The use of compound feed for cows increases the productivity and quality of dairy products.

For example, for dairy cows, the following products are used:

  • "KK-60-1-1" - for cows with high productivity. Used in the period after calving and during coughing;
  • "KK-60-1-2" - for milking during the period of crushing;
  • "KK-60-1-3" - for dairy at the second stage of lactation.

There are also mixed feeds for dairy cows with indices of 14, 16, 18, which indicate the percentage of protein, and a concentrate of 20% with a protein content of 33-35%.

It should be noted that the composition of compound feed for milking cows does not include bioactive additives that stimulate weight gain.

It will also be useful for you to find out what types of feed for cows exist, about the peculiarities of feeding cattle in the winter, all about cattle fattening.

For the calf

The nutrition of calves under the age of 6 months is qualitatively different from the diet of adults. Starter compound feed based on oats or oatmeal is recommended to be used as an optimally balanced specialized version of feed for young animals.

The table below shows the quality requirements for feed for calves up to 4 months old.


Exchange energy11 MJ
Crude proteinnot less than 20%
Crude fatnot less than 3.5%
Lysinenot less than 0.9%
Methionine + cystine0.55%
Sodium Chloride0.4-0.5%

The composition of the combined feed for calves must include:

  • a protein that provides full growth and vitality;
  • fiber, which is responsible for the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • vitamins that increase immunity and strengthen the body;
  • enzymes;
  • amino acids;
  • antioxidants.

The following complexes can serve as an example of compound feed for young animals:

  • "KK-62" - starter for young animals up to 4 months
  • "KK-63" - a complex used after "KK-62" or "KR-2", which is recommended for calves up to 12 months;
  • "KK-64" - for calves from 12 to 18 months;
  • "KK-65" - for feeding pedigree young animals and heifers.

Advantages and disadvantages of use

The profitability of livestock production depends mainly on the quality of animal feed.

If we talk about the benefits of such nutrition for cattle, it should be noted:

  • saving resources due to minimal consumption compared to using other types of feed to meet the same needs;
  • rational use of food and vegetable wastes, which, in purified and crushed form, are used in the manufacture of combined feeds;
  • the ability to include in the feed such elements that it is difficult or impossible to add to the diet of the animal separately;
  • the ability to give the feed a convenient and attractive shape based on its type;
  • safety from the point of view of sanitary standards, since it is easier to clean when hit on the floor in the barn, and parasites cannot start up in it;
  • ease and convenience in transportation.

Compound feed provides:

  • good growth;
  • strengthening the immune system through a combination of various elements and the use of fortified supplements;
  • the appearance of healthy and viable offspring;
  • productivity growth of 10-12%.
Among the shortcomings of feed should be said about these:

  • the difficulties of preparing it yourself at home;
  • high price of some species;
  • the need to adhere to the rules and dosage when feeding livestock;
  • possible refusal of adults from this type of food, if they have not been accustomed from a young age to this form of food supply.

Standards and quality requirements

According to the regulations, manufacturers of feed must indicate its purpose and quality requirements on the packaging, where it should be accordingly indicated:

  • name of the enterprise where the product was produced;
  • recipe number;
  • appointment;
  • structure;
  • production date;
  • shelf life.

The quality standard is the GOST standard, which for feeds sounds like GOST 9268-90 and GOST 9268-2015 in the updated version.

Its main provisions are:

  • compliance with moisture content of dry and briquetted forms, which should not exceed 14.5%;
  • compliance with the percentage of components.

Compound feed production is mainly carried out by special plants and agricultural enterprises.

A document confirming compliance with GOST guarantees compliance with the stages of the production process:

  • purification of components;
  • grinding all components to a homogeneous mass;
  • dosage of ingredients according to the recipe;
  • mixing in a special device;
  • pressing;
  • packaging and labeling of finished products.

It will also be useful for you to find out how much hay a cow needs per day and for the winter, and what to do if the cows do not eat hay.

The raw materials are required to comply with sanitary standards, confirmed by regulatory documents.

In order to find out what type of animal the food is intended for, a special marking system is used.

The letter abbreviation contains information about the purpose of the feed:

  • "PC" - a complete combined feed;
  • “K” - concentrate;
  • "BVD" - a protein-vitamin supplement;
  • "WTC" - a substitute for whole milk;
  • "P" is the premix.

For cattle, the KK index is used.

Also in the marking there are numbers:

  • the first indicates the type of animal;
  • the second is the serial number of the recipe.

Important! Cattle are unpretentious to the conditions of detention, but very sensitive to the quality of the feed, which can significantly affect its health, activity and productivity.


Compound feed distinguish:

  • according to the form of release;
  • by appointment.

It may also vary in composition, given the age of the animal.

The composition and form of the compound feed production largely depends on the purpose for which the animal will be used. For example, the nutrition of a cash cow and a breeding bull will have differences. Also, when choosing a combined feed, it is worth considering that the diet of a young calf will have certain differences in composition from the nutrition of an adult cow.

According to the form of release

This criterion is one of the main in the classification of animal feed.

So, for cows and bulls, the following release forms are used:

  • loose;
  • granular;
  • briquetted.

The technology for creating all forms is almost identical with the difference only in the final product.

For the production of feed used:

  • chopper or mill;
  • mechanical gearbox;
  • Dryer;
  • granulator (if it is necessary to produce granules or briquettes);
  • packer.

The creation process is as follows:

  1. Shredding . To do this, all the ingredients are placed in a millstone of a stone mill and there by squeezing or grinding they turn into a fine homogeneous substance. A drum may also be used for grinding.
  2. Dosage At this stage, the dosage and mixing of the components according to the compounding of the feed, as well as the addition of various additives: bone meal, vitamins, carbide, antibiotics.
  3. Mixing . It occurs using a special mechanism, which has blades rotating inside a horizontally located barrel and mixing all the elements to a homogeneous mass.
  4. Further production depends on the form of release of the final product .

The use of granules and briquettes is due to the minimization of mechanical losses, ease of transportation and storage.


After mixing all the crushed ingredients in the required proportion, according to the recipe, the manufacturing technology of bulk feed involves drying the resulting mass.

It should also be said that the loose form can be represented by 3 types of grinding:

  1. Small.
  2. Average.
  3. Large.

The advantage of the loose form can certainly be called its availability and the absence of the need to make large financial investments in the purchase of the line, which is a necessity for other forms of production. It is also worth noting that the cost of bulk feed is significantly lower than other forms.


A granulator is used to create a granular form of release before the drying step. This device is a conical tube with a long screw having a large thread diameter along the upper edge, which is called a screw.

It is he who strongly compresses and rams all the ingredients, forming a dense and long rod. Since the connection between the components is not strong enough, the rod is quite fragile and, leaving the granulator, breaks into small pieces of a cylindrical shape.

The size of the granules depends on the age of the animal for which the food is intended, and may vary:

  • in diameter 2.5—20 mm
  • 4.7–40 mm long.

The advantage of this form of release can be called:

  • convenience and long shelf life;
  • ease of transportation;
  • comfort at mechanical giving in farms;
  • the uniformity and uniformity of the supply of all elements (the animal cannot independently choose the components that he likes more than others);
  • has less loss during use, does not fall out of the feeders;
  • well absorbed, better than feed mixtures in the usual form;
  • with additional processing, pathogenic microflora is eliminated.

The quality of the granules can be determined as follows, paying attention to the fact that they should:

  • be the same size;
  • have one color;
  • be dense texture when pressed with a finger.

In briquettes

The difference in the production of briquettes from granules is that before drying, a homogeneous crushed mixture of ingredients is sent under pressure. As a result, briquettes of various sizes are obtained, having the form of flat rectangular tiles.

To maintain the shape of the feed, molasses or molasses is used, which fastens the dry matter, the percentage of which should be at least 83%.

Important! For the manufacture of granules and briquettes, cereals are used in the stage of milk-wax and wax grain maturity.

Before use, the briquette is crushed, but the advantage of this form of manufacture can be called:

  • ease of transportation;
  • convenience of storage;
  • Long shelf life.

By appointment

In accordance with the feed value, feed is of the following types:

  • full-fledged;
  • concentrate;
  • additives;
  • premix.


This type of combined feed includes a complex of elements that can fully cover the needs of the type of animal for which it is intended, with mineral, nutrient and biologically active substances.

When choosing a complete feed (PC) it is very important to take into account the needs of the group, for example:

  • for the smallest calves, they select a pre-start PC, which will help the kids grow well and increase their immunity;
  • Starter PC is used later.

Complete feed is an excellent option for replacing grain mixtures, silage, hay, which are traditionally used on small farms, because it can increase livestock productivity and increase the profitability of the economy as a whole.


This type of feed is not complete and cannot be used independently as a substitute for the main food. This is an addition to traditional rough, succulent feeds and grain mixtures, which makes up for the shortage of certain nutrients.

The main characteristic of the concentrate is the high content:

  • protein;
  • vitamins;
  • biologically active substances;
  • trace elements.

Concentrates in accordance with the content are divided into:

  1. Carbohydrate, where the amount of carbohydrates is 70%. They usually consist of: corn, millet, barley, wheat.
  2. High protein, where protein makes up to 25% of the total mass. These feeds contain soy, peas, legumes, meal cake at the base.

Concentrated feed is used mainly in the winter, when a lack of nutrients can significantly reduce the protective properties of the body and adversely affect livestock health. Mass fraction of feed should not be more than 50%.

The concentrate is mixed with:

  • cereals;
  • straw;
  • silo;
  • root crops;
  • hay;
  • drinking water in the form of porridge for calves.

For fattening, the volume of the concentrate is increased to 60–75%.


Feed additives come in the following varieties:

  • protein and vitamin supplements (BVD);
  • protein-vitamin-mineral (BMVD);
  • super concentrates;
  • fodder yeast;
  • feed malt.

These additives are characterized by a high content of:

  • high protein components;
  • microadditives necessary for livestock;
  • vitamins;
  • mineral salts;
  • biologically active components.

Additives are not an independent feed, they are introduced into the diet in the amount of 20-25%.


This type of feed is a mixture of biologically active substances with a filler. They are used as a supplement to animal feed and protein-vitamin-mineral supplements, enriching their composition.

Learn more about cattle feed premixes.

Premixes may contain:

  • vitamins;
  • amino acids;
  • minerals;
  • stimulants (antibiotics);
  • substances affecting the digestion and digestibility of the feed (enzymes, emulsifiers);
  • may include medicinal components (sulfadimezin, furazolidone).

Premixes contribute to:

  • improving immunity;
  • growth stimulation.

Such additives mainly consist of:

  • wheat;
  • wheat bran;
  • meal;
  • oilseed rape;
  • soybean meal;
  • fodder yeast.

Отличием премиксов от добавок является крайне малая доля их использования. Количество премиксов не должно превышать 1 % в общей массе зерновой смеси и 5—10 % в БВМД.

Премиксы часто используют для молочных коров, желая повысить их продуктивность.

Различают такие виды премиксов:

  • universal;
  • лечебные;
  • витаминно-аминокислотные;
  • минеральные.

Как делать домашний комбикорм своими руками?

Технологический процесс производства комбикорма в домашних условиях мало чем отличается от промышленного.

Он также состоит из следующих этапов:

  1. Измельчение.
  2. Дозирование.
  3. Mixing the ingredients.
  4. Storage.

На заводах по производству питательных кормовых смесей используются мощные приспособления, способные изготовить большие объёмы продукции. На собственной ферме можно использовать и самодельные измельчающие и смешивающие установки, рассчитанные на получение небольшого количества комбикорма.

Существует несколько причин, по которым хозяева животноводческих ферм предпочитают создавать комбикорм самостоятельно:

  1. Экономия средств, возможность рационально использовать отходы сельхозпроизводства, пищевые и растительные.
  2. Личный контроль качества. Создавая смесь ингредиентов собственноручно, фермер может достоверно обладать информацией о том, сколько и чего он положил в состав корма, какое происхождение и качество всех составляющих.

Существует несколько популярных рецептов приготовления комбикорма в домашних условиях.

Молочным коровам


  • молотая кукуруза 15 %;
  • молотый ячмень 20 %;
  • шрот или жмых подсолнечника 25 %;
  • отруби пшеницы 15 %;
  • травяная мука 25 %;
  • соль 0, 5 %;
  • мел 0, 5 %.

Узнайте, как правильно кормить корову молочного направления.

Мясным коровам


  • пивная дробина;
  • отруби пшеницы;
  • selenium.

Изготавливается болтушка, которая должна перебродить. Затем её необходимо высушить. Эту смесь можно хранить сроком до 12 месяцев. Её нельзя давать быкам-производителям.

Для быков


  • кукуруза цельная 16 %;
  • овёс с ячменем 17 %;
  • зерновые отруби 15 %;
  • шрот 20 %;
  • мясная мука 5 %;
  • соль 1 %.

Также, вдобавок к перечисленным домашним комбикормам, рекомендуется добавлять, особенно в зимний период, корнеплоды.

It can be:

  • turnip;
  • кормовая свёкла;
  • carrot;
  • брюква.

Прежде чем использовать корнеплоды, их моют или очищают от земли и измельчают. На 100 кг веса коровы необходимо 15 кг такой овощной добавки.

Did you know? В странах Западной Европы и США можно встретить коров с дыркой в боку. Эти животные не больны и не ранены, а отверстие представляет собой «окно», которое позволяет фермеру контролировать пищеварительный процесс наглядно. Просовывая руку в такое искусственное «оконце», он может регулировать концентрацию бактерий, следить за газообразованием, а приоткрыв его и обеспечив дополнительный путь газообмена, помочь животному справиться с дискомфортом ощущений во время переваривания больших объёмов пищи.

Как правильно составить рацион питания?

Прежде чем перейти к вопросу о том, сколько съедает в день взрослая корова или маленький телёнок, обращаем ваше внимание на необходимость правильного составления рациона скота.

Для этого нужно учитывать такие рекомендации специалистов:

  1. В период, когда коровы находятся большую долю времени в стойле, в их питании должен преобладать грубый корм, ведь он снабжает организм животного питательными веществами, учитывая небольшие объёмы удоя.
  2. Когда удои коровы увеличиваются, к грубым кормам присоединяют сочные и концентрированные добавки.
  3. Если удои превышают 10 кг в сутки, следует также добавить в рацион корнеплоды, а особенно картофель.
  4. Коровы с высокой продуктивностью должны питаться разнообразно, им необходимо давать минеральные и витаминные компоненты.

Для телёнка

Знакомство телёнка с комбикормом можно начинать только тогда, когда ему исполниться 10 дней. До этого времени ему необходимо находиться на вскармливании материнским молоком. Начиная с указанного дня, необходим стартерный комбикорм, который даётся в дозировке 1 столовая ложка в день.

Сухую смесь разводят в молоке и дают выпить телёнку. Далее количество специального питания постепенно увеличивают, а к четырёхмесячному возрасту его норма потребления увеличивается до 1 кг. В полугодовалом возрасте доза потребления комбикорма уже достигает 6 кг.

Такое питание способствует здоровому росту телёнка и укреплению его иммунитета только в том случае, если указанная норма не превышается.

Для взрослого КРС

Дойная корова должна хорошо питаться, и её рацион должен включать такие виды кормов:

  • основной;
  • балансирующий;
  • продуктивный.

Основной — грубые корма. Он должен быть в свободном доступе для животного, однако необходимо следить за его чистотой и свежестью, обновляя его после каждой кормёжки, но не менее 2 раз в день. Это обусловлено тем, что корм находится круглосуточно в коровнике, впитывая запах продуктов жизнедеятельности.

Такой вид питания должен иметь не менее 6, 3 МДж ЧЭЛ/кг СВ. В рационе должно быть не менее 40—50 % основного корма.

Балансирующий — вид питания, регулирующий количество протеина в грубом корме и восполняющий нехватку витаминов и микроэлементов в основном корме.

При излишке в основном питании протеина, используют балансирующий, в состав которого входят:

  • wheat;
  • barley;
  • тритикале;
  • овёс.

В ситуации, когда в грубом корме отмечается нехватка белкового компонента, используют такие балансирующие корма:

  • шрот из рапса;
  • шрот из сои;
  • cake;
  • зерновая барда;
  • свежая и силосованная дробина.

Целью применения такого вида питания является баланс энергии и питательных веществ, которые благоприятно влияют на продуктивность коровы.

Продуктивный комбикорм — сбалансированное питание, которое способствует получению максимального объёма надоя.

Объём потребления этого корма должен рассчитываться для каждого животного индивидуально, поскольку этот показатель напрямую зависит от таких факторов:

  • продуктивность животного;
  • состояние здоровья, возраст.

Существуют правила, руководствуясь которыми, можно произвести подсчёт расхода комбикорма:

  • максимальная порция комбикорма составляет 3—4 кг за одно кормление. Но если в нём преобладают зерновые, богатые содержанием крахмала, то не более 2 кг;
  • интервал кормления должен составлять 4 часа;
  • подача должна совершаться дозировано, в определённой последовательности и в условленное время;
  • порция комбикорма зависит от объёма надоя, на каждые 1, 5—2 л которого следует давать дойной корове 1 кг комбинированного корма.

Применение комбикорма в питании крупного рогатого скота является необходимым условием для улучшения состояния здоровья животных, увеличения их производительности и повышения рентабельности производства.

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