Characteristics and rules for growing apricot Sibiryak Baikalova

Growing apricots in Siberia is a very real task, although for its implementation it is necessary to choose the right variety. The history of growing heat-loving fruit trees in the extremely cold conditions of Russia has been going on for about a century, during which time scientists managed to develop a fairly large number of zoned varieties, so the choice today is quite large. One of the options worthy of the closest attention is the apricot Sibiryak Baykalova, which will be discussed below.

The history of selection of varieties Sibiryak Baykalova

The author of this frost-resistant variety is the famous Soviet breeder Ivan Leontyevich Baikalov, who devoted half a century of his life, on a voluntary basis, to the idea of ​​promoting apricots in the Siberian regions, which, it must be said, few people initially believed. Thanks to the efforts of this scientist, in addition to the Siberian Baikalov, such well-known apricot varieties as the Golden Siberian, East Siberian, Sayan, Mountain Abakan, Pride of Khakassia, Gift of nature also appeared.

Did you know? Achievements of Ivan Leontyevich Baikalov in the field of creating Siberian apricot varieties in 2010 were marked by the inclusion in the Russian Book of Records. However, if most apricot varieties recommended for cultivation in the Urals and Siberia were obtained by crossing fruit trees of the species Prinus armeniaca (common apricot) with its local relative, Prinus sibirica (Siberian apricot), which has very high winter hardiness, but at the same time having almost inedible fruits, the Sibiryak Baykalova is not a hybrid, but a random seedling . In its genetic formula, of course, there is a line of Prinus sibirica, an apricot pollinator grown in Altai, in a private garden.

Work to consolidate the long-term result of free pollination was carried out on the basis of two scientific institutions - the Scientific Research Institute of Agrarian Problems of Khakassia and the Far Eastern Agricultural Research Institute (Khabarovsk Territory).

Read about the features of the beneficial and unhealthy properties of apricot.

In 2002, 12 years before the death of the author, the variety named after him was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation and was recommended for cultivation in the East Siberian region of Russia - in Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk, Khakassia, Transbaikalia, Yakutia, Buryatia, Tuva, and also Irkutsk region.

Description of the variety and characteristics of Sibiryak Baikalova

As befits Siberian apricots, the Siberian Baikalova forms a small, up to 3.5 m tall tree with a sprawling and not too dense, but very leafy spherical crown, reaching a diameter of 4 m. The growth rate of the variety is characterized as intense at a young age, but after reaching a tree maturity, annual growth rates are declining.

The color of the bark of the tree is dark red, the skeletal branches are long and thick, the buds are medium-sized, the arrangement is bouquet-shaped, on three annual shoots (fruit on the sides and growth in the center), on older branches two or more. The angle of deviation of the kidney from the shoot is significant.

The flowers are medium to large; the color is white or light pink.

The leaves are medium sized, dark green on the front side and lighter on the back (a characteristic feature of Prinus armeniaca). The leaf shape is oval with a tapering and sharpening apex; the stalk is short, brightly colored.

Did you know? The most unusual of all apricots is rightly considered black, which is a random hybrid of apricot and cherry plum. The skin color of such fruits is more reminiscent of plum in color, but for the traditionally orange fruits of Prinus sibirica, even the violet or dark red color is not so characteristic that the fruit is still called black. Fruit Characteristic:

  • sizes - quite large, from 25 to 37 g, depending on the age of the tree, its care and rationing of the crop;
  • the shape is round and slightly flattened;
  • skin color - pale orange with an odd blush;
  • pubescence is small;
  • the color of the pulp is orange;
  • the structure of the pulp is moderately dense and juicy;
  • percentage of solids, sugar and acid - 16 / 8.3 / 2.4;
  • the percentage of ascorbic acid is 0.81;
  • the percentage of pectin is 0.57;
  • taste characteristics - not bad, sweet taste with acidity, fruity aroma;
  • tasting score - 4.8 points on a five-point scale;
  • the stone is small, easily detached, the core is edible;
  • the purpose is universal.

The flowering period of Sibiryak Baikalov falls at the end of the first - the beginning of the second decade of May. The crop reaches biological ripeness in late July or early August, which allows apricot to be classified as an early ripening variety. The tree enters the fruiting phase already starting from the second or third year of life, when it reaches adulthood, it demonstrates a stable yield of up to 20 kg per tree .

However, to ensure such a result, the correct forming pruning is necessary, as well as the presence of pollinators, since the variety does not differ in high self-fertility. In this capacity, it is best to use other varieties developed by I.L. Baikalov - Mountain Abakan, Sayansky, as well as Altaysky, etc.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

  • For a relatively short history of the variety, gardeners managed to appreciate the following advantages:
  • high frost resistance of wood (up to -40ºС);
  • the ability to quickly recover in case of freezing shoots;
  • low growth power in adulthood, which eliminates the need for annual pruning;
  • early entry into the fruiting phase;
  • regular harvests;
  • large-fruited, not characteristic of other Siberian varieties;
  • early ripening;
  • very good tasting qualities of fruits;
  • good product characteristics, in particular, regular shape and uniform fruit sizes;
  • crop keeping quality and its suitability for transportation;
  • universal purpose of the fruit.
Important! Sibiryak Baykalova variety is distinguished by high frost resistance, but low winter hardiness.

  • However, Sibiryak Baikalov has some drawbacks. These usually include:
  • relatively low yield indicators;
  • a short period of winter dormancy, which leads to a high probability of freezing of fruit buds;
  • increased risk of root neck crying;
  • self-infertility;
  • instability to changes in weather conditions;
  • low immunity to diseases and pests.

These concepts need to be distinguished. Frost resistance is understood as the ability of a tree to withstand lowering winter temperatures to significant limits, while winter hardiness is a broader concept. It also implies the resistance of young shoots and especially fruit buds to a sharp change in severe frosts and thaws, as well as to spring return frosts.

Rules for planting apricot Sibiryak Baykalova

Taking into account the above-mentioned features of the variety, in order for the tree to develop normally and tolerate the climate of Siberia that is not very favorable for fruit crops, it is very important to plant it correctly. Read also articles on this topic:

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Timing and seat selection

Siberian Baikalova is specifically designed for cultivation in Eastern Siberia, and gardeners recommend strictly adhering to this principle of regionalization. Thus, the tendency of a tree to root out the neck of the neck in the East Siberian region is less pronounced, since the winters here, although severe, are characterized by stable weather and the absence of early snowfalls, unexpected thaws and snowfall on the ground that did not have time to freeze.

At the same time, in the Moscow Region and other central regions of Russia, where the climate would seem to be milder, apricot of this variety, with its short period of winter dormancy, is much more likely to freeze at the end of winter, when another thaw stimulates the tree to awaken, and subsequent frost will destroy the awakened kidneys. The same problem lies in the tree in Western and Southern Siberia. As for regions with a warm climate, it makes sense for them to choose more elite apricot varieties, in addition, in the south, trees are usually much more affected by fungal infections and pests, and Sibiryak Baykalova is very unstable in this regard. As for the recommended landing times, here should proceed from the general rules of zoning.

Important! Autumn planting of fruit trees has a number of undeniable advantages over spring, but it is not suitable for cold regions, since the risk of freezing in winter is higher than the possible difficulties with spring rooting.

Planting Siberian Baikalov is necessary in the spring, when the earth has already warmed up enough, but at the same time the buds of the tree have not yet had time to wake up. Usually, a suitable period begins around mid-April or a little later, but in a changing climate, you should be guided by the current weather conditions.

For a seedling, you need to choose the sunniest and most well-warmed place, as much as possible protected from sudden gusts of wind. The recommended soil composition is loam or sandstone: the soil should be light, loose and fertile, the acid-base balance close to neutral .

Find out why the apricot tree does not bear fruit.

Site preparation and planting material

The apricot planting area is best prepared in the fall. First, the selected place should be thoroughly cleaned of debris and organic residues, then you can begin to prepare the pit and the soil mixture.

The dimensions of the pit directly depend on how high quality and suitable in all basic parameters for the apricot is the soil on the site. The minimum dimensions of the recess - 70 x 70 cm - are used if the original soil composition tends to the ideal. In all other cases, the pit must be dug approximately 30% deeper and wider, after which it is partially filled with specially prepared earth for these purposes.

The general principles for adjusting soil composition are as follows:

Parameter:Component Add To EnhanceDowngrade component
Acidity:Peat, acid (malic or acetic)Limestone flour, chalk, eggshell
Structure: (lightness)Sand, Moss SphagnumClay

After the main adjustment work with the soil has been completed, the soil must be enriched with organic and mineral fertilizers.

For this purpose, based on one seedling, the following must be added to the ground:

  • compost, rotted manure or humus - 2-3 buckets;
  • superphosphate - 150-350 g;
  • vermicompost - 400-500 g;
  • potassium sulfate or wood ash - 100-150 g or 400-500 g, respectively.

It should be noted, however, that the best option for Sibiryak Baykalov is to plant according to a method specially developed by the author of this variety, as well as other well-known gardeners Chuguev and Zhelezov especially for Siberian apricots. This method does not involve the preparation of a hole at all; instead, a tree is planted on a hill. Did you know? Americans are so fond of apricots that they even dedicated a separate holiday to them, which for some reason is celebrated in the winter of February 9th. When using this technique, such a hill is also best prepared immediately before planting, otherwise by the spring its edges will be washed out by meltwater, and all work will need to be done anew. But it makes sense to prepare the soil mixture for later use in the fall, since manure and other nitrogen fertilizers in the soil should not be “fresh”, otherwise you can burn the root system of a young tree.

Seedlings are best purchased in proven nurseries of fruit trees, and it is very important that the institutions are located as close to the final point of planting as possible: such a tree will be much easier to survive the stress of transplanting and gain a foothold in a new place.

The ideal age of a seedling is 1 or 2 years (the height of such a tree is usually 100-150 cm). Immediately before planting, it is recommended to soak the plant by immersing its roots and approximately 30% of the stem in water for 24–48 hours. Then, the root system should be dipped into the prepared slurry from clay, water and manure, wait until the mixture dries slightly and then cut off the ends of the main root processes to stimulate their intensive development and division.

We recommend you to find out how and what you can plant apricot on.

The process of planting young seedlings

Planting a seedling according to the methods of Baikalov, Zheleznov and Chuguev involves the following algorithm of actions:

  1. From a previously prepared soil mixture mixed with all the necessary fertilizers, form and compact the hill. The height of the embankment should be at least 50 cm, diameter - 2–2.5 m.
  2. Dig a hole on the top of the hill, the total volume of which should be approximately 30% of the size of the root system of the seedling.
  3. Pour water abundantly with at least 1–2 buckets. The water should be left standing and warmed up to a warm temperature so that the roots of the tree do not experience stress from hypothermia.
  4. Set the tree in the pit, orienting it to the cardinal points in the same way as it grew in the nursery (this point must be checked with the seller, although usually grafting from seedlings of fruit trees is done from the south side).
  5. Having straightened the root processes of the seedling and directing them in different directions, carefully begin to sprinkle the pit with a nutritious soil mixture, constantly interrupting for tamping (there should be no air pockets in the roots).

  6. After the pit has completely fallen asleep, the apricot root neck should remain on the surface, in no case should it be buried in the ground.
  7. After planting, the tree is not watered. Also, the so-called “collar” should not be formed around the seedling - a section for holding water that is enclosed by an earthen rampart around the circumference. Instead, on the contrary, you need to compact the earth around the tree so that immediately from the trunk a slope begins at an angle of approximately 45 ° (the more snowy the winters in the region are and the higher the probability of frost and thaw changes, the more steep the slope should be).
  8. To consolidate the relief of the hill immediately after planting, it is recommended to sow its slopes over the entire area with lawn grass, it is best to purchase mixtures based on shoot grass, it holds the soil well and does not compete with the root system of the tree. The same grass carpet subsequently protects the trunk circle from weeds and will serve the apricot as a natural defense against the cold.

Video: Apricot. Landing instruction

Care and protection against diseases and pests

When caring for the Siberian Baikalov, it is necessary to follow the standard rules that are relevant for all varieties of this tree, however, it is very important to keep in mind that growing apricots in Siberia has some fundamental differences from the agricultural technology used in the south.

Did you know? Marzipan is a famous confectionery product, which, as you know, is made from almond flour. However, some enterprising housewives, instead of expensive almonds, use apricot kernel kernels to make marzipan, and the result is quite authentic. The main features of Siberian apricot care are:

  1. Limited watering. The main danger that threatens the fruit tree in the conditions of a short and cool summer is not a possible drought, but a possible stagnation of water in the roots. Apricots traditionally belong to drought-resistant crops, without regular watering they are able to bear fruit even in really hot regions, but an excess of moisture in the soil leads, at a minimum, to cracking of the fruits, and at the very least to decay of the root neck and subsequent death of the tree.
  2. A controversial issue is the advisability of mulching the surface of the trunk circle, since this procedure helps to retain moisture in the soil. For regions with an arid climate and snowless winters, mulching can be used, but in areas where the Siberian Baikalov is usually grown, this method is better not to apply.
  3. Wrap a tree for the winter in order to protect from frost should not be. The sap flow that has begun during the thaw, which is already very dangerous for this fruit tree, under the shelter increases the bark heating even more. This nuisance, in turn, blocks the exchange of nutrients between the aboveground part of the plant and the roots, resulting in apricots awakening in the spring very quickly dry up and die. At the same time, inexperienced gardeners often believe that the tree killed the frost and the next fall they try to wrap up the seedlings even more, while such an event in reality leads to an even more deplorable result.

Otherwise, caring for the Siberian Baikalov involves the implementation of three standard procedures - pruning, top dressing and preventive treatment .

As was said, the biological feature of the variety is the low growth rate in adulthood, therefore, it is sufficient to carry out maintenance trimmings once every two years. The best time for this is the end of winter or the beginning of spring, when the sap flow has not yet begun.

Important! The more apricot is cut, the better it bears fruit, and regular pruning favorably affects not only the number of fruits, but also their size.

Feed the tree should begin two years after planting. Традиционно процедуры внесения удобрений корневым методом проводятся весной (с упором на азотную составляющую) и осенью (калийные и фосфорные удобрения). Кроме этого, летом, в момент закладки урожая можно осуществить внекорневую подкормку деревца такими микроэлементами, как бор, магний, сера, кальций, цинк, марганец и пр. В этот же период на склоны вокруг деревца, под перекопку, можно внести органику.

Необходимое количество удобрений неразрывно связано с таким понятием, как площадь питания. Первые 4–5 лет корневая система деревца не выходит за пределы приствольного холма, то есть площадь питания составляет 2, 5–3 м². В дальнейшем, этот параметр следует увеличивать, прибавляя к нему по 50 см² каждый год.

Рекомендуемый объём основных элементов (из расчёта на 1 м²) площади составляет:

Вид удобрения:Доза внесения, г:
Органика (перегной)4000

Сибирские абрикосы, в отличие от своих южных собратьев, редко поражаются болезнями и вредителями, поэтому многие садоводы при уходе за деревьями ядохимикаты не используют вовсе. Однако иммунитет Сибиряка Байкалова к подобного рода проблемам оставляет желать лучшего, поэтому как минимум дважды (весной, на стадии набухания почек и сразу после цветения) дерево желательно обработать препаратами инсектицидного, фунгицидного и акарицидного действий. Для этих целей можно использовать карбамид, железный или медный купорос, бордоскую смесь или современные биологические средства — «Фитоверм», «Фитоспорин М», «Гуапсин», «Триходермин» и пр.

Если деревце, несмотря на предпринятые меры, поразили грибковые инфекции (клястероспориоз, цитоспороз, филлостикоз и пр.) или вредители (плодожорка, листовёртка, тля, долгоносик, пилильщик, плодовый клещ), для обработки используются более сильные средства, например:

Фунгицидные (противогрибковые) препаратыИнсектициды (препараты против насекомых-вредителей)Акарициды (препараты от клещей)

Harvesting and storage of crops

Сибиряк Байкалова традиционно характеризуется как сорт с высокой лёжкостью плодов, однако этот показатель является величиной относительной. Также очень важно знать, что для продления сроков хранения абрикосы никогда не следует срывать неспелыми: в отличие от некоторых других фруктов, например, слив, эти плоды, хотя и могут приобрести нужный цвет и мягкость при хранении дома, по биохимическому составу в этом случае будут в значительной мере уступать фруктам того же сорта, вызревшим на дереве. Important! Любые абрикосы следует рассматривать как скоропортящиеся фрукты.

С этой точки зрения общие рекомендации о возможности хранить урожай Сибиряка Байкалова в погребе или холодильнике на протяжении 2–3 недель выглядят как не слишком реалистичные. Однако на протяжении нескольких дней абрикосы этого сорта всё-таки можно сберечь в товарном состоянии, при соблюдении нескольких важных условий:

  • не использовать для хранения упавшие на землю плоды, даже если они выглядят абсолютно целыми;
  • собирать урожай в сухую погоду;
  • складывать абрикосы в плоские ящики или картонные коробки не плотнее, чем в три слоя;
  • при укладке и транспортировке урожая не допускать ударов и встряхивания плодов — это очень быстро приводит к их порче;
  • каждые несколько часов перебирать собранные запасы, немедленно удаляя экземпляры, ставшие мягкими и, тем более, начавшие гнить или течь.

Все приведённые выше рекомендации имеет смысл использовать при желании употребить урожай в свежем виде. В переработку же абрикосы лучше всего отправлять непосредственно в день сбора или, в крайнем случае, на следующие сутки. Did you know? Курага — это абрикос, сушёный, без косточки. Однако высушить этот вид плода можно и без предварительного нарушения его целостности, в таком случае полученный сухофрукт будет именоваться «урюк» или «шептала», а вот если в плод перед засушкой положить извлечённое из косточки ядро, готовый деликатес правильно называть «кайса». Высокое содержание сахара в плодах Сибиряка Байкалова делает их одинаково пригодными для приготовления любых блюд и заготовок — от начинки для пирогов до варений, компотов и джемов. Для отжима сока этот сорт подходит в меньшей степени, зато его вполне можно засушить.

Для падалицы и потерявших форму плодов лучшим направлением использования является приготовление домашнего вина или более крепких алкогольных напитков, например, аналога армянского абрикона (так называется выдержанный в дубовых бочках спирт, полученный методом перегонки из сброженного абрикосового сока).

Абрикос Сибиряк Байкалова — один из лучших сортов, специально предназначенных для выращивания в Сибири. По сравнению с обычно мелкоплодными, невзрачными и почти безвкусными плодами, которыми характеризуются большинство зимостойких плодовых деревьев, этот сорт отличают достаточно крупные и очень сладкие абрикосы, которые, к тому же, очень неплохо хранятся. Определённые недостатки у Сибиряка Байкалова присутствуют, но, в общем, они довольно легко нивелируются правильной посадкой и грамотной агротехникой.

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