Characteristics and rules for growing apricot Countess
The Countess apricot variety is an excellent choice for cultivation in regions with a humid and temperate climate, so it is suitable for cultivation in the suburbs and central regions of Russia. The culture is distinguished by good fertility and unpretentiousness in care. About the characteristic features of the culture, as well as the technology of its cultivation, read below.
Botanical description and characterization of the variety
The variety was bred by domestic breeders A.K. Skvortsov and L.A. Kramarenko in 1988 from 2 seedlings of their own generation. In 2004, culture was included in the Russian State Register for the central region. The plant is adapted for the climate of the Moscow region and Moscow region.
Did you know? The use of apricots has a neurotropic effect on the cerebral cortex, which helps to increase the efficiency of the body.
Description of the fruit and appearance of the tree
Leaf plates are large, oval in shape, with a sharp point at the end. The color of the leaf is dark green along the rim there are serrated.
The flowers are pale pink, composed of 5 petals, their diameter up to 3 cm.
Large fruits have an oval shape. The mass reaches up to 35 g. The soft part is juicy, sweet with a touch of sour, its color is orange. The peel is thin yellow, with a pink-orange blush. The medium-sized stone is well separated from the pulp.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Culture has the following advantages:
- early ripening;
- resistance to fungal infections;
- the fruits are well transportable over a long distance;
- high indicators of frost resistance.
The disadvantage of the variety is the tendency to chop fruits with abundant yields. If the season is rainy, the risk of kleasterosporiosis is significantly increased.
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Pollinators and fruiting periods
The plant begins to bear fruit for 4 years of growth, bringing an abundant fruit harvest for 20–25 years. Apricot has a lifespan of 30 years. Apricot Countess is mid-season, so the collection of fruits is carried out from mid-July to early August. The variety is self-fertile and can not do without pollinators.
Therefore, in order to increase productivity near such pollinators should be planted:
The plant has excellent immunity to infections, such as:
- bacterial cancer.
Apricot wood can withstand frosts down to -30 ° C. But, the flower ovaries of the plant can crumble with return frosts.
Find out why the apricot tree does not bear fruit.
Agriculture cultivating varieties on the site
Growing an apricot tree is a simple process. Subject to all the rules for choosing high-quality planting material and the site on which the crop will grow, you can grow a healthy and strong tree, which will please a plentiful harvest.
The culture is grown in a well-lit area, which will help to improve the taste of the fruit. When choosing a site, you should pay attention to the height of the groundwater, which should be at least 1.5 m in depth so that the rhizome does not rot.
The soil in the selected area should be light, not oxidized, otherwise the plant will often be exposed to diseases. Do not plant a tree in a draft so that the plant is not attacked by pests and infection with fungal spores that are moved with the wind.
A selection of quality seedlings
Apricot tree seedlings must be purchased in specialized nurseries. Be sure to check the vaccination mark, which will guarantee the authenticity of the variety. 2-year-old trees, the rhizome of which should be up to 40 cm and the trunk height of 1 m, are best taken root. When choosing a seedling, a thorough examination is carried out for diaper rash and rotten parts of the rhizome.
If before planting another 3-4 weeks, and the seedling has already been purchased, then care should be taken to preserve it. The plant is placed in a cool room at a temperature of + 5 ° C. The root system must be wrapped in thick paper or burlap and provide good moisture. Saplings can be dug on the site, for which you just need to sprinkle the rhizome with soil and constantly carry out moisturizing procedures.
Direct landing technology
Planting seedlings is best done in the spring, so that over the summer the plant grows stronger and accumulates nutrients for the wintering season. Landing is carried out in mid-April, when the air temperature warms up to + 15 ° C.
The soil for planting is prepared six months before the procedure, it is dug to a depth of 30–40 cm and mixed with manure in the amount of 5 kg per m², and 200 g of wood ash per m² of area is also added for digging. Read also
The fertile layer of the earth is mixed with 10 kg of humus, 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium and 100 g of wood ash. The prepared substrate is poured to the middle of the well and left in this position until the seedling is planted directly.
Apricot tree planting technology:
- The soil in the hole must be loosened and formed in the form of a knoll.
- Drive a stake in the middle of the pit, which will rise 1 m above the soil level.
- Insert planting material into the pit, gently straightening the rhizome along an earthen hill.
- Add soil to the top of the pit and tamp.
- Form a near-stem circle around, by forming an embankment around the trunk at a distance of 50-60 cm from it.
- Pour a bucket of warm water (10 l) into a tree.
- Mulch the area near the trunk with peat to a depth of 5 cm.
Tree Care Rules
It’s not at all difficult to take care of the plant, the most important thing is to fertilize and water it in time so that the crop does not need nutrients. An important factor in the development of the apricot tree is the formation of the top and proper preparation for the winter period, as can be read below.
Watering and fertilizer
The plant does not tolerate waterlogging, so it should be watered moderately. Watering is carried out 1-2 times a month. Water is introduced into specially grooved grooves in the near-trunk circle, its amount depends on the age of the tree: 20 l for a young plant and 30 l for an adult. The liquid before watering should stand for a day, its temperature is approximately + 27 ° C.
Important! After irrigation, you need to dig and mulch the soil with peat in order to enrich the rhizome with oxygen and save the necessary moisture longer.
Fertilizing should be applied for 3 years after planting, because the nutrients that were introduced during planting will last for a long time.
Fertilization is carried out according to the following schedule:
- The first time fertilizer is applied for digging on April 15–20. It is necessary to add 60 g of urea per m².
- The second feeding is carried out from May 20 to June 1. One adult plant requires 30 l of a solution consisting of: 2 kg of chicken placenta and 10 l of water.
- The third feeding should take place from August 20 to September 10. 60 m² of superphosphate and 30 grams of potassium are added per m².
Crown trimming and shaping
The formation of the apex begins immediately after planting. The most common form of crown is sparse-tier. First you need to establish the zone of the stem, for this measure 50-60 cm from the soil up the trunk.
Find out how apricot pruning is done in the fall.
- In the first year, 2 forming shoots are left on the apricot: one is at the height of the stem, and the second is at a distance of 30 cm from the opposite side, they are cut by 20 cm. All remaining branches are completely removed, and the central conductor is shortened by 20 cm.
- The next year should leave 3 skeletal branches. The second tier of the crown is placed at a distance of 40 cm from the first. A distance of 30 cm is observed between the branches. The remaining shoots are cut into a ring, and the central shoot and branches forming the tiers are cut by 20 cm.
- In the third year, one branch should be left, which will form 3 tiers. It is located 35 cm higher than 2 tiers. As in previous years, all forming branches are cut by 20 cm.
Every year it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning of shoots. Cut off all damaged by diseases, dry and thin branches.
Wrapping a tree before winter
To make it easier for a young tree to survive winter frosts, it is necessary to wrap the trunk with burlap or thick cardboard, which will allow the plant to retain heat. You can attach the material to the trunk using an insulating tape or ordinary rope.
Important! In order to more thoroughly prepare the culture for winter, in late autumn they spend the last watering and mulch around the trunk circle with peat and sawdust - this will help maintain the warmth and humidity necessary for wintering.
Diseases and pests of the variety
The plant has immunity to many diseases, but in conditions of high humidity, the risk of infection with claustosporiasis increases, which in turn can lead to the development of gum disease. Kleasterosporiosis is a fungal disease that affects all aerial parts of the plant. Brown leaf spots form on the leaf plates, which eventually dry out and spill out, forming holes.
On the branches one can notice spots of 3-5 mm in red-brown color, which over time are pressed into the surface of the trunk and lead to the formation of cracks in the cortex. If the defeat of kleasterosporiosis occurs during the spring thaw, the developing disease leads to partial shedding of flowers and, as a result, a decrease in yield.
Fight against klyasterosporioz:
- Loosening the area around the trunk.
- Removing affected branches.
- Spraying with 1% copper solution (100 g per 10 l of water) is carried out before flowering and after flowering.
- Irrigation with “Captan” (50 g per 10 l of water) is carried out after flowering and again after 10 days.
Gum disease is not an infectious disease, it develops due to damage to the cortex due to physical factors, such as severe frost, improper pruning, breaking branches due to strong winds. A fungal infection can cause the disease, leading to damage to the integrity of the trunk. Viscous, brown drops appear at the cracking site of the bark, which attract pests and become gates for various bacteria.
When gamma detection occurs, all places of damage must be cleaned. To do this, you need to carefully cut off the protruding drops from the barrel and clean the damaged area with sandpaper. Then the wound is disinfected with a 1% copper solution (10 g per 1 liter of water), after which the place is rubbed with fresh leaves of sorrel. After waiting for the complete drying of the wounded place, you need to cover it with garden var.
Did you know? In ancient Egypt, apricot fruit was used not only as a food product, but also made anti-aging masks and body scrubs from it.
The most common pests of apricot culture are: aphids and codling moth. Aphid is a small, green insect 5 mm long, which feeds on the juice of leaf blades, shoots and flower ovaries. Aphids can be detected by the presence of twisted leaves with a sticky coating on their surface. If you do not fight the pest, then in a short period it affects almost the entire crown.
- Trimming insect-affected branches.
- Spraying with soap-ash infusion, consisting of: 300 g of soap, 100 g of wood ash and 10 l of water. It is performed for a period of 3 days, the procedure is repeated in a week.
- Processing means "Karbofos" 90 g per 10 liters of water.
Codling moth is a gray-brown butterfly that lays its offspring in crevices of the bark, old stumps, and the remains of plant debris. Larvae of the codling moth eat the flesh of the fruit and damage the apricot kernel.
Measures to combat codling moth:
- Manually catching butterflies.
- Uprooting rotten stumps from the site.
- Garbage collection.
- Installation of adhesive tapes on a tree trunk.
- Treatment with a soap solution of 300 g of soap dissolved in 10 l of warm water.
- Irrigation with Fufanon 10 ml per 10 l of water.
In order to avoid infection with a fungus and to prevent the invasion of insects, annual preventive measures should be carried out, such as:
- Digging a plot to a depth of 30–40 cm.
- Harvesting weed grass.
- Collecting and burning rotten fruits.
- Lime whitewashing of the bark during the thaw in spring and before winter frosts.
- Irrigation with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid before setting flowers and after flowering.
Read more about warming apricot trees for the winter.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Apricots are harvested by hand to prevent injury. Fruits are placed in wooden boxes whose bottom should be lined with tracing paper or a newspaper. So that the fruits do not deteriorate during storage, they are laid in 1-2 layers. Apricots are stored in the basement at a temperature of + 10 ° C and a relative humidity of 60%. Under these conditions, the fruits retain their presentation for up to 4 weeks.
The Countess apricot variety is resistant to fungal infections and has a high winter hardiness. The culture is unpretentious in care and brings a good harvest, which makes it attractive to gardeners.