Breeds of cows of meat and dairy direction
When breeding cattle (cattle), the main task of the farmer is to choose the breed that can quickly adapt to climatic conditions and will be characterized by high productivity. Cows of meat and milk direction are considered universal in this regard. Consider the most popular varieties of this type and their features.
What is the peculiarity of cows of meat and milk direction
Meat and dairy cattle are bred more often in narrow-profile enterprises producing products for mass consumption. Meat and dairy representatives are more in demand in private farms and medium-sized farms.
Important! When crossing a combined type of cows with meat, you must pay attention to the dimensions of the cattle. The meat representative should not be larger than meat and dairy, otherwise the female may have difficulties during calving.
The main features that distinguish combined cattle from narrow-profile:
- universality - they can be bred to obtain high milk yield and meat products;
- undemanding regarding diet - unitary breeds need to select a specific diet, which is not always beneficial;
- mating can be carried out inside the breed and with representatives of the unitary type while maintaining parental qualities;
- high adaptive abilities allow keeping cows even in cold regions with scarce feeds.
Meat and dairy breeds of cattle
The most popular varieties of cows of meat and dairy type:
- Caucasian brown.
The breed was obtained by breeding Shorthorn, Dutch and local Russian breeds. Representatives of the Bestuzhev breed reach 120–130 cm at the withers. They are distinguished by a strong physique. The color of the coat is red. Their main advantage is strong immunity.
Learn more about the content of Bestuzhev cows.
The breed is resistant to such dangerous diseases as leukemia and tuberculosis. The content of the breed is very economical, shows good productivity with a diet consisting of roughage.
By the age of 20 months, cows gain 400–700 kg, bulls - over 1 ton. Meat yield within 60%. Bestuzhevskaya cow produces 3000–5000 liters of milk per year. The fat content of dairy products is average - 3.8–4%. With an improved diet, fat content reaches 5.5%.
The species was obtained in Russia by crossing the local cattle and Tyrolean representatives. Take a closer look
Animals are painted mainly in red; individuals with white patches are occasionally found. Valued by breeders for resistance to brucellosis, tuberculosis, leukemia.
At 20 months, females reach a weight of 600 kg, bulls - 900 kg. Carcass meat yield - 50%. For a year, the female produces 3000 liters of milk.
The low yield of dairy products is offset by its high quality and fat content within 6%.
Kostroma cattle was obtained in Russia by crossing local highly productive individuals.
The growth of the Kostroma cow is 120 cm at the withers. In representatives of this species, the body is folded proportionally, the muscles are pronounced. Primary colors are red and gray. Also, individuals with different combinations of these colors are found.
By 20 months, females gain weight 550-700 kg, bulls - 900 kg. The meat yield is 70%. Milk productivity - 4000-7000 liters per year. The fat content of milk is 3.9%. Products are characterized by an increased amount of lactose - 5%.
The variety is among the oldest. Formed in Switzerland. Among other representatives stands out unpretentious diet. The growth of sexually mature individuals is 130 cm at the withers. The downed body is set on short legs. Color gray, blue.
Get acquainted with the features of caring for the Swiss breed of cattle.
The weight of a female in a year and a half is about 800 kg, a bull - 1200 kg or more. Carcass meat yield - 60%. Milk productivity - 4000-5000 l / year. The fat content of milk is 3.8%.
Find out more
In the process of selection, several subspecies of Simmental cows were bred.
All representatives have a powerful constitution. Reach 140 cm at the withers. The main color is fawn, with a predominance of red.
The weight of the cow is 500-700 kg, the bull - 1000 kg. The meat yield from the carcass is 70%. Milk productivity - 3500-4000 l / year. Fat content of products - 4%.
A species was bred in the Caucasus by crossing local representatives and Schwyz, Kostroma, Swan cows. Tall, tall individuals reach 130 cm at the withers. Representatives of this species are painted in different variations of brown.
Important! Caucasian brown is a record holder for fertility. Representatives of this breed often give twins and even triplets, which is rarely found in females of other breeds.
The weight of females reaches 500–600 kg, bulls - 800–900 kg. Meat yield - from 50%. Milk productivity - 3500 l / year. The fat content of the product is 3.5%.
The breed was bred in the foothills of Kazakhstan. The individuals of this breed are small, of strong physique, with short powerful legs. Growth of an adult Arautian cow is 130–150 cm. The color is predominantly brown.
The weight of a cow is 600–700 kg, of a bull - over 1 ton. Meat yield - 60%. Milk productivity - 4000-5000 l / year. Fat content is 3.5-4%.
Did you know? A cow is a social animal that is always looking for communication. After observing the behavior of cattle in the herd, you can see that the individuals get together in groups and everywhere accompany each other. This feature can be used to increase the productivity of cows. If two cows are kept in neighboring stalls, which are kept nearby for walks, their milk yield will increase.
The breed was bred in Ukraine by crossing local Sumy representatives and Schwyz cows. Growth ranges from 130-150 cm. Build - dense, legs - medium length. The color is light brown and light gray.
Bred variety in Yakutia. It differs from other representatives of meat-and-milk type in small dimensions. Their height is only 110 cm. Build downed, shortened legs set wide. In thoroughbred individuals, clear color parameters are absent.
Learn more about the pros and cons of a Yakut cow.
The weight of a cow in adulthood is 360 kg, the bull - 550 kg. Meat yield - 53%. Milk yield per year is 1300-1500 liters with a fat content of 6%.
Bred in Yorkshire. Growth at the withers - 130 cm. Build - powerful, legs - medium length. The predominant color is motley red.
At 20 months, the cow reaches a weight of 500 kg, the bull - 800–900 kg. The meat yield is 45-50%. Milk productivity - 4500-5000 l / year. The milk fat content is 4.5%.
Features of keeping at home
In the warm period, cattle spends all the time in the fresh air. Diet at this time are pasture feed. In winter, cattle are transferred to insulated, draft-protected cowsheds. The room must be equipped with a ventilation system, a place for waste.
The floor is made of concrete and be sure to lay on it a bed of hay or straw.
The diet for the winter looks something like this:
- 20 kg of hay;
- 10 kg of haylage;
- 5-6 kg of vegetables;
- up to 18 kg of animal feed;
- vitamins and minerals.
Once a week, the premises are cleaned and the top layer of the litter is replaced. Every day, all individuals need to be examined for injuries and signs of the disease on their own. Every 3-4 months, scheduled examinations are carried out by a veterinarian.
Pregnant heifers are kept separately, providing them with more comfortable conditions and carefully choosing a diet. Every six months, preventive deworming is carried out.
Did you know? Cows, without turning their heads, can see at 330 °, while the blind zone consists of a rear view and objects located at a distance of 20 cm from the nose. This angle provides a special structure of the pupil elongated horizontally.
Meat and dairy cattle are very popular among breeders. He is not fastidious in leaving and tolerates cold well, shows good productivity even with a poor diet.