Botanical description and features of growing Xenia cherries
One of the most popular varieties of large-fruited cherries is Xenia, which is characterized by early ripening, abundant productivity and large fruit sizes. What else are the advantages of the described fruit culture, and what are the features of its cultivation - later in the article.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Ksenia is a large-fruited, dessert variety of cherries of the early growing season, which is characterized by good frost resistance and high productivity. A new variety of culture was obtained by crossing the elite varieties Nord Star and Valery Chkalov, from whom they received large-fruited berries and high winter hardiness. It was entered in the state register of fruit crops in 2012.
Ksenia cherry belongs to the category of plants with medium growth rates. It has a rounded, slightly drooping crown with medium thickened branches. The shoots of the plant are quite thin, light brown in color.
The green mass of the culture is represented by a small number of leaves of a traditional form, dark green in color. In April, the cherry enters the flowering phase and fairly large, white-colored flowers are formed on the tree, emitting a pleasant, pronounced aroma that attracts bees.
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After flowering, large, rounded-shaped, weighing 7–10 g, berries, saturated dark maroon in color, which fully ripen in mid-July, form on the cherry. The peel of the fruit is smooth and shiny, fairly strong, not prone to cracking. The pulp is characterized by a high juice content, has a dense, grainy structure and a pleasant cherry flavor.
The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, but without excess acid. Inside the berry there is a medium-sized stone, which is easily separated from the pulp. According to the tasting assessment, Ksenia berries received 4.7 points out of a possible 5.
Pollinators, ripening period and variety yield
Ksenia variety is partially self-fertile, therefore, for good fruiting it needs pollinating plants. The best option for the neighborhood are the cherries Donchanka, Tenderness and cherries Baby, Nochka, Nord is old.
The described culture belongs to the category of plants with early ripening, the fruits of which can be removed already in late June - early July. Cherry is characterized by high yields, from one tree under favorable weather conditions and competent care, 20–25 kg of berries can be harvested per season.
Did you know? The oldest tree in the world is considered to be a tree native to England. Its height is over 14 m, and its age is more than 150 years.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
The variety is characterized by remarkable frost resistance and is able to tolerate low temperature indicators, up to –25 ° C. After spring night frosts, the tree can quickly recover and start new shoots.
In addition, the plant has a strong immunity to diseases such as moniliosis and coccomycosis. In rare cases, in violation of the basic rules of agricultural technology and high humidity, it can be affected by rust and scab. Among the pests, the greatest danger to the tree is cherry aphid, codling moth and sawfly.
The fruits of Xenia are large, juicy burgundy berries with a wonderful sweet and sour taste and a pronounced aroma. They are a wonderful fresh treat, as well as useful and tasty raw materials for preparing various dishes and drinks.
Cherry berries are widely used in the culinary field for the preparation of sauces, marinades, desserts, pastries. Aromatic alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks are obtained from them: wines, liquors, liquors, juices, compotes, etc.
Important! Cherry contains coumarins, which reduce blood clotting, so berries are very useful for people prone to blood clots, heart attacks, and heart attacks.
In addition, fresh berries are successfully used in folk healing . They have a unique, multifaceted vitamin-mineral composition, represented by vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants, amino acids, which have anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, tonic, restorative effect.
A huge range of active biological components in the stock of cherry pulp determines its high healing properties . Regular use of fruits makes it possible to get rid of constipation, improve the digestive tract, normalize the functioning of the cardiovascular system, cleanse and rejuvenate the body.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Cherry Ksenia is a relatively new variety in domestic gardening, however, despite this, she managed to gain popularity, thanks to her many advantages:
- large fruit size;
- high frost resistance;
- excellent resistance to coccomycosis and moniliosis;
- good yields;
- high palatability of fruits and presentation;
- rapid fruiting, 3 years after planting a seedling.
- Among the shortcomings of experienced gardeners note:
- the need for pollinating plants for stable and quality fruiting;
- the need for mandatory trimming of the seedling for its quick survival;
- exactingness to watering.
Ksenia variety is notable for the fact that it does not require any special growing conditions, it is able to develop and bear fruit in a temperate climate.
We advise you to read about the methods of propagation of cherries, planting and subsequent care.
Ksenia cherry is the result of the activity of Ukrainian breeders, so it is fully adapted to the climatic conditions of the region. In addition, thanks to good frost resistance, it can grow well in the Central and Central Black Earth regions of Russia, in particular, Moscow Region .
To plant a crop, it is necessary to select a sufficiently lit, spacious area that is well protected from cold winds and drafts. You also need to plant a seedling away from farm buildings or tall trees so that they do not obscure the plant.
Video: Cherry Planting Instructions
Soil for wood
Ksenia is not too demanding on the soil, however, in order to obtain stable and worthy crops, it is recommended to choose nutritious, light, breathable and loose soil for planting. The best option for growing cherries are loamy or sandy loam soils with a neutral acidity level. The ideal option is black earth.
When choosing a place for planting a crop, it is necessary to pay attention to the depth of groundwater. If it is not lower than 2–2.5 m, then when planting a seedling, it is imperative to make a high-quality drainage layer, which will prevent stagnation of moisture in the ground.
Important! Experts do not advise planting seedlings on swampy or clay soil, because too hard soil structure and high humidity will not allow the root system of the plant to fully develop.
Features planting cherries Xenia
Like all fruit crops, Ksenia cherry needs a competent planting to ensure a normal life cycle, using high-quality, healthy planting material.
Selection of seedlings
To grow cherries of the described variety, experts advise you to purchase an annual seedling that has a healthy, strong, well-developed root system. The root processes should be strong enough, resilient, without any signs of disease, rot or dryness. In addition, you need to pay attention to the bark of planting material: it should be a smooth structure, without mechanical damage or growths.
For planting, it is better to choose seedlings with a height of not more than 1.2 m, with root roots, a length of about 20–25 cm. Planting material should be purchased in specialized garden markets or nursery plants, which guarantee the quality of the crop.
Did you know? The most expensive cherry is the representative of Italy called Glamor. The fruits of the "glamorous" tree are juicy, tasty and extremely fragrant berries of a dark red color, for each of which they give 3 English feet or 3.5 euros.
Landing pattern and technology
The technology of planting Xenia is not much different from planting cherries of another variety. Before planting seedlings, it is necessary to carefully prepare the site: dig and loosen the soil, make fertilizers in the form of humus or compost.
As for the optimal time for planting, it can be early spring - 10-15 days after the complete melting of snow, or autumn - a month before the onset of the expected cold weather.
The technology of planting a seedling is based on the following steps:
- Dig a hole 60 × 80 cm in size.
- A nutritious soil mixture is prepared: the seized soil is mixed with humus (5 kg), superphosphate (60 g) and potassium (40 g).
- A drainage layer of about 8 cm high is lined at the bottom of the excavated recess from expanded clay, pebbles or broken brick.
- On top of the drainage, a small layer of the nutrient mixture is covered, from which a small mound is made.
- A wooden peg is inserted into the knoll, which will serve as a support for the young seedling.
- A plant is placed on top of the earthen mound, the root processes are straightened, they are covered with fertile soil, leaving the stump 5–8 cm above the surface.
- The earth around the seedling is slightly tamped, watered 30–40 liters of settled cold water.
- When the moisture is completely absorbed, the area of the trunk circle is mulched with straw, hay or sawdust.
We advise you to read how to make cherries bear fruit.
Proper plant care
To achieve successful survival of the seedling, as well as full-fledged further growth of the tree, he needs to ensure timely and competent care.
Watering and feeding
Regular watering of Xenia is one of the most important points of care for her. Irregular and inadequate moisture can lead to poor survival of the seedling, its late fruiting and fading.
In the first year of growth, the plant needs to organize watering at least twice a week, focusing on the condition of the soil. Pour enough water on one tree so that the soil is moistened to a depth of 35–45 cm. For this, you will need about one bucket of water. In the dry period, the amount and volume of irrigation should be increased to 2-3 times a week, using 2-3 buckets of settled, cold water.
It is very important to provide the culture with sufficient moisture in certain phases of its vegetation:
- before the plant enters the flowering phase;
- during the formation of ovaries;
- after picking berries;
- before preparing cherries for wintering.
Important! Irrigation measures should be carried out in the morning or evening hours.
No less important in the care of Xenia are top dressings, which experts advise to conduct 3-4 times a season:
- during flowering culture. In this case, nitrogen-containing preparations are used for nutrition, the action of which is aimed at enhancing the growth of green mass;
- after flowering, you can nourish the tree with organics, for example, compost or manure, which will ensure the full development and "filling" of berries;
- After harvesting the fruit, the tree is fed with mineral compounds rich in phosphorus, calcium and potassium.
The content of soil around the cherry in a clean, well-groomed form is considered one of the main conditions for good growth of the culture and its abundant fruiting. The near-stem circle must be freed from weeds, which take moisture and nutrients from cherries, thereby inhibiting its development. It is very important to get rid of parasitic plants until the moment when they enter the flowering phase.
Soil care includes a loosening procedure, which makes it possible:
- create favorable conditions for the growth of the root system;
- enrich the soil with oxygen and nutrients;
- to intensify the development of processes and green mass.
In order to preserve moisture in the soil as much as possible, to prevent the growth of weeds, it is possible to carry out organic mulching of the soil, with a layer of 8-10 cm, by means of mowed grass, hay, straw or sawdust.
Cropping and shaping the crown
The described cherry variety needs regular pruning and crown formation. The first pruning should be performed immediately after planting a seedling. For this, all shoots are shortened by 1/3 of the length, leaving about 40–45 cm of the stem trunk. The main skeleton of cherries should be formed from 5-6 of the strongest and strongest branches arranged in tiers, approximately at the same distance from each other.
Important! An annual seedling, the shoots of which did not reach 40 cm, does not need pruning.
It is also necessary to carry out sanitary pruning annually, removing dry, damaged, decayed or too weak shoots from the tree. At the same time, it is necessary to remove the root shoot located around the root roots, as it “takes away” the beneficial components from the culture.
The formation of the crown is advised to be carried out on reaching the tree for 4-5 years. During the procedure you need:
- shorten the trunk to 3–3.5 m;
- cut the skeletal branches in the place where the growth of side shoots ends;
- cut off new branches that are pulled up in the place where they grow from the main conductor.
Diseases and Pests
One of the advantages of Xenia cherry is its strong immunity to moniliosis and coccomycosis . Meanwhile, the plant is not completely protected from other ailments, in particular: scab and rust, which can occur due to improper care or adverse climatic conditions.
For the prevention of diseases, experienced gardeners recommend disinfecting the plant:
- before blooming and during budding, spray the tree with Bordeaux liquid;
- after flowering, treat with a solution of copper sulfate;
- during the period of berry growth, repeat spraying the plant with Bordeaux liquid.
Did you know? At the time of Yuri Dolgorukov, the cherry tree was the only fruit plant growing in those regions.
The last decontamination must be carried out a month before the harvest.
Among the pests, danger to cherries can be: cherry aphid, codling moth, caterpillars . In the fight against parasites, modern insecticides of a wide spectrum of action have good effectiveness: Aktara, Karbofos, Inta-Vir.
Simple preventative measures will help prevent the development of diseases and the appearance of pests:
- timely loosening of the soil;
- regular weed control;
- compliance with irrigation and top dressing;
- systematic crop spraying.
Ksenia cherry is one of the most promising varieties in domestic gardening, which, while providing traditional care, is able to please with quick fruiting and plentiful harvests. Berries of culture are characterized by high taste and marketability, due to which they are considered universal and are used in many areas of human life - cooking, folk healing, cosmetology.