Blackcurrant Harmony: characteristics of the variety and features of cultivation
Russian breeders have bred many decent blackcurrant varieties. This is not surprising, because Russia ranks first in the world in the cultivation of this crop. The variety of blackcurrant Harmony is one of the most productive and combines a lot of qualities necessary for gardeners.
Harmony is a high-yielding late-ripening variety. This blackcurrant has large-fruited, winter hardiness and drought tolerance. It is self-fertile and hasty, yields crops already in the 2nd year after planting and does not require the presence of pollinating varieties. The plant is highly resistant to powdery mildew and bud mites, but can be affected by anthracnosis and less often septoria, gall aphids.
The variety of blackcurrant Harmony was obtained by employees of the Siberian Research Institute of Horticulture named after M.A. Lisavenko in 1980 when crossing varieties Bredthorp and Dikovinka. The authorship belongs to breeders Z. Zotova, I. Kalinina, N. Nazaryuk, M. Pershina, I. Tesla. In 2004, he was included in the State Register and zoned in the West Siberian region.
Did you know? The farther north the currant grows, the more nutrients accumulate in it.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Variety of currant Harmony forms mid-sized bushes of medium sprawl. Medium-thick shoots are slightly curved and do not have pubescence. At a young age, they are green, and eventually lignify and become a light brown tone. Small oval buds are crimson and pressed to the shoots, and the apical bud is located freely.
Five-lobed smooth leaves of medium size and light green in color, framed by short blunt teeth and attached to a long purple petiole in the place of a small indentation. The blades are pointed at the ends, the central one is more elongated than the lateral ones and they are connected at an angle of 90 °. This currant blooms in glassy light pink flowers, collected in a brush up to 7.2 mm long.
They hang from the branches and have a thin axis. The berries ripen together and are attached to the middle stalk, have a dry separation. Round shiny black fruits grow to 2.1–3.3 g. They have an average number of seeds and a medium-thick skin. Their sweet and sour taste was rated 4.6 out of 5. The berries contain up to 14.2% dry matter, 1.5% pectin, 7.6–12.7% sugar with titratable acidity of 2.1–3. 2%
The average yield in the field was 13.9 tons per 1 ha, and the maximum yield reached 20 tons per 1 ha. On average, 4.2 kg of berries are harvested from 1 bush.
Advantages and disadvantages
- A variety of blackcurrant Harmony may interest a large number of advantages:
- high yields;
- resistance to powdery mildew and kidney mites;
- presentation of fruits;
- great taste;
- good transportability;
- early maturity;
- universality of the use of fruits;
- resistance to frost, drought, some common diseases and pests.
- There are few disadvantages:
- cracking of fruits at high humidity;
- instability to septoria and gall aphids.
Variety of black currant Harmony will give high yields only with good care and protective measures. Did you know? The content of vitamin C in 100 g of blackcurrant fruit is 150.2 mg. This is 1.67 times the daily allowance for an adult male or a pregnant woman.
Seat selection and landing
The landing area should be chosen well-lit by the sun and closed from strong cold winds. Groundwater should be between 1–1.5 m above ground level. In wetlands, the culture grows poorly. Currants prefer light, well-permeable water and air fertile soils, preferably loamy.
The soil must have a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. If the soil has an increased level of acidity, then the site must first be liming. For this purpose, slaked lime is used, which is applied to the soil depending on the acid level in an amount of 0.5-1.5 kg per 1 m². Among the previous crops, the plot should not have currants, gooseberries and raspberries.
Currants can be planted in spring or autumn . Experts in temperate climates recommend planting it in the fall, from late September to early October. The landing site is pre-excavated with the addition of organic matter - 1 bucket of compost or humus, 1 liter of wood ash and 80-100 g of superphosphate are left for 1 m². The procedure is carried out 2 months before disembarkation.
Recommended landing pattern:
- between the bushes maintain an interval of 1 m;
- between the rows leave 1.5–2 m.
Planting a seedling is carried out in the following sequence:
- dig a hole measuring 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m;
- water is poured into the hole (1/2 bucket);
- the soil is mixed with half a bucket of compost, 2 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate and 1-2 glasses of ash;
- fill the pit 2/3 with prepared soil in the form of a knoll;
- placed on such an elevation seedlings with a slope of 45 ° and gently straighten the roots;
- planting material is covered with nutrient soil, tamping the ground, and then watering and mulching the soil again.
After planting, the seedling is cut into 2-3 buds. The root neck should be 5-6 cm below the soil level.
To obtain a good harvest of blackcurrant Harmony, it is necessary to organize proper care for it. At the onset of a warm period, you need to take care of hydration.
The main roots of the culture are not deep - 0.4 m deep, so the bushes cannot independently obtain the necessary moisture for growth and development. Watering is recommended every 7-9 days. Under a young bush, 10 liters of water is enough, and under an adult - 3-5 buckets. Important! During fruiting in dry and hot weather, watering is carried out every 2-3 days so that the fruits do not crumble and are large.
After wetting, it is recommended to loosen the soil with the removal of weed grass. For ease of maintenance, the earth around the bushes can be mulched with rotted manure, humus, compost, sawdust, peat. The procedure will preserve the looseness of the soil, improve its composition, protect it from drying out and prevent the growth of weed grass.
For the first 2 years, when enough nutrients are introduced into the planting pit, the bushes may not be fertilized.
For the third year, experienced gardeners recommend the following top dressing:
- In early spring (late March - early April), nitrogen-containing fertilizers must be applied to increase green mass and shoot growth. For this purpose, a solution of urea (10 g per 10 l) is suitable. You can also apply organics - slurry, chicken droppings.
- In May, during the ovary, it is recommended to feed the bushes with nitroammophos (150 g per 10 l). Under 1 bush leaves 1 bucket.
- In October, humus is added under each copy with the addition of 1 cup of wood ash.
Blackcurrant loves foliar top dressing. For this purpose, you can use the complex drug "Nutrivant PLUS fruit", which contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other useful elements. Spraying is recommended to be carried out 1 time per month before the onset of the fruit ripening period.
Pest and Disease Control
When heavy rains are set in a cool spring, the risk of fungal diseases increases. So, septoria can be detected by brown spots, which brighten over time and become almost white with a dark brown border.
When rust appears, red spots appear on the back of the leaves, gradually growing into strips.
Anthracnose is detected by purple spots on the leaves. If you do not take measures, the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall, the yield will decrease significantly.
At the first signs of fungal diseases, it is necessary to carry out treatment with copper-containing preparations - Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, Hom. It is also necessary to reduce the level of watering.
Important! The most dangerous for currants are viral diseases, since there are no effective remedies for their treatment. At the first sign, the bush needs to be dug up and burned so that the virus does not spread to neighboring plants. To prevent the occurrence of diseases, it is necessary to ensure that the plantings are not thickened, remove weed grass, remove the remains of vegetation and fallen leaves in the fall. In early spring, before budding, it is recommended to carry out preventive treatment with Bordeaux fluid.
Signs of viral diseases of currant:
- Striped mosaic. It is detected by a yellow mosaic pattern on the leaves. The carriers of the virus are aphids and ticks.
- Terry . The main sign is the fact that the bush ceases to bear fruit. This virus can be detected during the flowering period. The buds are pulled and sharpened at the ends, become darker in color, lose their aroma. Flowering itself occurs a week later. The color falls off without forming an ovary.
Viral diseases cannot be cured, but can be prevented.
For this purpose, the following preventive measures are observed:
- purchase only healthy seedlings from trusted sellers;
- regularly inspect plantings for diseases and pests;
- fight insects that are carriers of viruses and infections;
- fertilize plantings according to the recommended schemes in order to strengthen the immunity of plant crops;
- remove shoots with a sanitized and well-sharpened tool.
Currants can be affected by pests such as gall midges, fireworms, kidney moths, spider mites, aphids, vitreous glass, sawflies, and insects. To eliminate them, chemical preparations Fitoverm, Karbofos, and Aktellik are used.
To prevent the appearance of pests, it is necessary:
- dig the soil before the cold period around the bushes so that the larvae could not overwinter in the soil;
- during the growing season, constantly remove weed, as pests like to hide in the thickets of weeds;
- it is possible to cover the soil around the bush in early spring in order to prevent the seasonal release of insects to the surface from the ground;
- cut off heavily insect-affected areas of the crop and burn.
During fruiting, when pests are detected, it is better to use harmless folk remedies - an infusion of garlic, onions, wormwood, tobacco and soap solution. In early spring, to prevent the appearance of diseases and insect pests, the bush is recommended to be poured with boiling water. To enhance the effect, it is recommended to add potassium permanganate to the boiled liquid.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Removal of branches is carried out in early spring, before buds open. For sanitary purposes, pruning is done as necessary and in the fall on the eve of the winter period. For this purpose, dry, broken, affected by diseases and pests branches are removed.
To form a bush in the 2nd year after planting, leave the strongest shoots in the amount of 3-5 pcs., And cut off excess processes. The remaining branches are pinched on top of 2-3 buds to stimulate the growth of branches for fruiting. For 3-4 years, 6 strong shoots of the last season are left on the bush. In July, they are shortened so that up to 5 buds remain on the branch. Important! It is also necessary to ensure that there is no thickening of the bush - cut off weaker shoots and branches that grow inward. In the 5th year, all shoots of the first year are removed, rejuvenating the bush, as the old branches give an already unimportant crop. An adult bush should consist of 5 annual shoots, 4 branches 2 years old, 3 branches 3 years old, and old branches should not be older than 3 years.
Harmony blackcurrant has good winter hardiness. Adult mature bushes do not require shelter. They should be protected from rodents with the help of a net or roofing material, which wraps the bush. In order to prevent the root system from freezing into severe frosts, it is recommended to mulch the soil with a layer of 8–10 cm. In winter, during the period of snowfall, it is advised to plant the snow with snow in order to additionally insulate the bushes.
Harvesting and storage of crops
The first crop of Harmonia currant can be obtained the next year after planting. Berries at the same time ripen from approximately late July to early August. Torn brushes should be folded into small containers - baskets up to 3 l or plywood boxes up to 6 kg. Berries are transported without problems and have good keeping quality.
Black currants are stored in the refrigerator for up to 5 weeks. It can be stored frozen for up to 12 months. Currants are also suitable for harvesting: good stewed fruit, jam, jams, confiture, wine and liquors are obtained from it. These berries are most useful to consume fresh. Almost all vitamins are stored in jam without cooking, if the berries are ground with sugar, and when frozen.
Did you know? Anthocyanins contained in blackcurrant favorably affect the human visual apparatus, protecting the eyes from oxidative stress. This is especially useful for people working for a long time at a computer.
Harmony blackcurrant gives high yields of large fruits of excellent taste and universal purpose. To obtain high yields, the plant must be planted correctly and provide optimal care.