Black onion: description and characteristics, sowing technology

Onion cultivation is carried out in two ways: from seeds (nigella) or from small bulbs (sevka). In this review, we will talk about the features of cultivation and technology for sowing onions from seeds.

Description and characteristics of chernushka onions

Nigella are onion seeds, so named because of the characteristic black color. Nigella is called the seeds of all varieties of onions. You can buy them in a store or grow them yourself. They ripen on the shoots of an adult bulb: after the growth of the plant ends, it throws out several arrows, at the ends of which spherical inflorescences form. After flowering, they turn into clusters of ribbed capsules with future seeds.

You need to collect the chernushka after the boxes begin to acquire a brown color - to ripen. So that the seeds do not crumble to the ground, boxes can:

  • cut and fold into a ripening paper bag;
  • tie with gauze for ripening on the arrow.
After cutting the heads, they should be stored in a cool and dry place for several weeks. When the heads are completely dry, they are shaken vigorously to release the seeds from the boxes. The resulting cinnamon is also stored in a dry and cool place.

The seeds sown in the ground germinate and yield a crop of small bulbs, not more than a few centimeters in diameter - this is the so-called onion set. And in the second year, full onions grow from the planted seed. There are also annual varieties of onions that form bulbs in the first year of cultivation.

Important! Most seeds purchased from private companies are hybrids. They are obtained from 2 parental varieties by cross-pollination. It is not practical to collect seeds from such onions - they will not reproduce vegetables with the same characteristics and characteristics.

Beneficial features

The positive qualities of Chernushka were known to the ancient Greeks. They used it to treat many diseases, including headache and toothache, and also noted the antiparasitic characteristics of these seeds.

The ancient Egyptians worshiped the bow, believing that its spherical shape and concentric circles inside symbolize eternity. They also appreciated its seeds: they found chernushka in Egyptian tombs - it was one of the items needed when traveling to the underworld.

Onion seeds contain up to 38% fat and up to 2.5% of essential oil, and also include calcium, iron, potassium and sodium, fiber. Various studies of the properties of onion seeds have shown that they reduce the risk of developing diabetes and have a beneficial effect on the body. Essential oils from seeds are involved in the treatment of asthma, diarrhea and circulatory disorders.

Chernushka oil has the following properties:

  • anti-inflammatory;
  • antioxidant;
  • antimicrobial;
  • antipyretic;
  • antitumor.

It also prevents the spread of cancer cells and lowers blood pressure. Taking capsules with 40–80 ml of oil reduces the symptoms of allergic rhinitis or eczema.

Important! Although seed oils have been used for many centuries, very little is known about their acceptable dosage or interaction with other drugs. Therefore, if you are undergoing treatment, consult your doctor before including onion seed oil in your diet.

Varieties of onions grown from nigella

Among modern varieties of onions, one can also find those that grow into large heads in just one season. For this purpose, some varieties of shrubbery (or shallots) from the early ripe category are suitable, as well as mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties of ordinary onions and many others.

Popular annual varieties that can be grown from seeds:

  1. Delight is a late-ripening variety that produces large, dense, bright yellow bulbs weighing from 150 g for sowing seeds and up to 300 g for sowing seedlings. Additional features of the variety: resistance to disease, endurance to weather factors, the possibility of long-term storage. The growing season is 130–140 days. The variety is an annual hybrid.

  2. A centaur is an annual hybrid, can grow under adverse conditions, and the harvest is stored for a long time. The growing season is 90–110 days. The centaur belongs to mid-season grades. You will get dark yellow round bulbs weighing 100 g when grown by seeds and weighing up to 300 g when germinated from seedlings. The yield of the Centaur is 10 kg / m².

  3. The crimson ball is a no less large hybrid variety with dark purple color scales. Sweet and juicy round bulbs weighing from 80 to 200 g will be good in fresh form, but they are almost not used in workpieces. The growing season is 90 days. The variety is an annual with stable yields of up to 7 kg / m².

Dutch hybrid onion varieties are also popular among gardeners. Their feature is not only disease resistance, but also stable yield. They are great if onions are grown for sale and must be transported.

Discover the features of growing onions varieties Stuttgart Riesen and Hercules.

Features of Dutch varieties:

  1. Varieties with golden yellow scales are the most common. The best representatives of this group are Centurion and Golden Gourmet. Bulbs have white, dense, peninsular flesh. They are universal, as they are suitable for cooking and for canning. They are distinguished by a mild taste and good yield.
  2. Varieties with red scales have white flesh with a red tint on the edges of each layer. They are great for salads. Bright representatives of this group are the varieties Electric, Red Carmen, Senshuy.
Among the varieties that have long and well established themselves, modern gardeners use the following:

  1. Myachkovsky is an early ripe biennial with a vegetative period of 90 days. Productivity of a grade - 4–5 kg / m². Turnip weight - 100 g. The variety is well stored and suitable for transportation.

  2. Spassky is a biennial, a representative of multi-germ varieties with a bulb weight of about 40–50 g. Spassky's vegetation lasts about 100 days. It does not differ in high productivity (1.5–2.7 kg / m²), but has a good taste and resistance to putrefactive bacteria.
  3. Amber is a mid-season variety with oval bright yellow bulbs of medium size and weighing 50–80 g. It can be harvested 120 days after planting. The variety is an annual with stable turnip productivity of 199–362 kg / ha.

  4. Bessonovsky - gives bulbs with golden scales and spicy taste, weighing up to 60 g. Grown in a two-year culture. Bessonovsky's yield is 1–2 kg / m².

  5. Zolotnichok is an annual that grows well in cold regions and is undemanding to climate. Productivity does not exceed 1.8 kg / m². The variety with round bulbs weighing up to 60 g, which ripen within 80–90 days, is excellently stored and suitable for use both in raw and canned form.

Growing black onion at home

Onions are vegetables that can be grown in cool weather, from early spring to late autumn. For ripening, some varieties only need 45-60 days, and late-ripening onions will take up to 140 days. The main feature of the plant is that large bulbs cannot be obtained before the onset of warm days. In addition, they slowly increase in size.

Did you know? Onions were part of the human diet more than 7000 years ago. Archaeologists have found traces of it in the Bronze Age settlements.

There are 2 ways to grow onions:

  • sowing seeds in the ground;
  • planting seedlings.
Each of the methods has its own characteristics. When growing seeds indoors, you need to start sowing 10-12 weeks before the time comes for planting seedlings in the ground in spring. You should also pay attention to the light mode. The optimal daylight hours should last 10-12 hours. With an increase in its duration to 16 hours, you will receive the early formation of small bulbs.

An excellent modern method is winter sowing of chernushka. This can be done both in December and in February. It doesn’t matter if it snows on the street or not, and what temperature is there - the seeds will remain inactive until the time comes for them to germinate.

For sowing you will need a container with a lid, soil and the chernushka proper. Landing technology:

  1. Fill the container with soil. There must be drainage holes in the bottom of the container, and the cover will protect the crops from excess moisture in the event of rain.
  2. Plant seeds at a distance of about 2 cm from each other, then cover them with a layer of soil about 1 cm thick and water.
  3. Place the container in a place protected from bright light. You can put it in the gazebo or in the basement.
In the growth phase, you will need to monitor the moisture level in the container. Unlike seedlings grown indoors under lighting, there is no need to control the lighting or adapt the temperature - these seeds are immediately in improved natural conditions, which allows them to give a larger crop.

Did you know? Chopped onions can relieve irritation after insect bites. In combination with ground aspirin and a small amount of water, onion slices are also used as a folk remedy for the treatment of warts.

Optimum sowing time in open ground

The easiest method is to sow the seeds directly into the soil on the site. Landing is carried out in the spring or in the fall:

  1. Autumn planting of seeds - in November-December. The main criterion is a fairly soft, cultivable soil. Seeds will germinate only when optimal conditions arise in the spring.
  2. Spring planting - in March or April, when the soil begins to warm up.

Among the advantages of autumn planting, the absence of pests and weeds, accelerated harvest time (2–4 weeks earlier) are noted. In addition, it is believed that such a crop is more plentiful, and the bulbs are larger and more light.

Growing conditions

Most seeds germinate over a fairly wide range of soil temperatures, but at different rates. Too cold - and they grow slowly. Heat can also reduce the rate of germination. The optimal temperature range for sprouts is 10–20 ° С, at which plants will grow at the maximum rate.

You can warm the soil an additional several degrees, if you cover it with a film - this will accelerate the germination of seeds. The introduction of humus allows you to create a kind of source of heating from below, which at the same time provides the plant with nutrition.

Humidity is not critical for onions: it can grow both at normal humidity - 55–65%, and at high (during rains). The main thing is that the site is well lit.

Site selection and soil preparation

The best option for sowing onions is considered to be sandy-sandy, warm soil with good drainage, rich in nutrients. If there is clay soil in the area, then it can be improved by diluting with sand and providing good drainage, since the onion roots lie almost next to the surface. It is good if the site is inclined - this will provide a natural removal of excess moisture after rain. If the soil is too wet, this can lead to the appearance of rot and a decrease in yield. The acidity of the soil should not be lower than 6.5–7 pH.

Sowing technology

Bed preparation includes:

  • sand application, if you need to make the soil more loose;
  • application of leaf soil, compost or other organic fertilizers in order to fill the bed with nutrients.

Make grooves about 2 cm deep and sow the seeds at intervals of about 7 cm to avoid crowding. Lightly cover them with soil and moisten well. The advantages of this method are its simplicity - you just sow onions and harvest when it is ready.

Spring sowing

To grow larger bulbs, you should start sowing early. Sowing seeds outdoors is permissible approximately 1 month before the start of the frost-free period. It can be March or February, depending on the climate of your region. If the frost has already ended, then you can plant the germinated seeds.

Important! Use fresh seeds not older than 1 year for sowing, as they quickly lose viability during storage.

Winter sowing

Sowing onions in the winter is used more often than others. Landing is carried out at any time in the winter. When the temperature and duration of the day are suitable for starting the development of the sprouts, the seeds will sprout on their own and without any extra effort on your part. With this method of growing, plants form larger bulbs than during spring planting.

Growing seedlings

To grow onions in a seedling way, you need to sprout the seeds in the container, and then plant the seedlings on the bed. The container will be a regular drawer for seedlings or a cassette with separate cups. Fill it with the starting soil mixture - it can be ordinary garden land with the addition of sand to give it looseness and compost to increase nutrition. The components can be mixed in equal parts.

Sowing nigella costs 10-12 weeks before the date of transplantation into the ground, that is, about 2-4 weeks before the last freeze.

Planting and growing technology:

  1. Fill the container with 2/3 soil and put the seeds there. Deepen them no more than 1-2 cm, sprinkling on top with a small layer of soil.
  2. Cover the pallet with foil and install in a warm room with bright lighting. The air temperature should be around 20 ° C.
  3. After a week, the seeds will begin to germinate. Remove the lid and keep the onion at about 15 ° C. Daylight hours should last at least 10-12 hours, gradually increasing.
  4. When the green leaves reach a height of 12–13 cm, trim them to stimulate stronger growth of roots and stems.
  5. 6 weeks before transplanting into the ground, the onions must be acclimatized. Start by placing the container in a secure place on the street during the day. Start at 2 o'clock, gradually increasing the time. Seedlings are able to withstand even a slight frost, so do not worry about their health.

Now that the seedlings are ready for planting, decide on its date. This should be no earlier than 2 weeks before the last alleged freeze.

To gently transplant seedlings, you will need:

  • carefully dump the seedlings from the container;
  • prepare a bed and make a landing trench;
  • plant plants in the soil at a distance of 7-8 cm from each other;
  • compact the soil around the bulbs and water well.
The advantages of growing onions from seedlings is that you know exactly where and how many onions you have come from, and you see how healthy it is. You can also choose the most powerful seedlings for planting. The downside is that seedlings experience stress during transplanting, and there is a risk of losing some of them. Therefore, seedlings need to be planted 30% more than you need.

Important! Onions can cause poisoning to pets. It is able to weaken red blood cells in the blood of a cat or dog, cause anemia, and even cause death.

Care Features

Onion planting care is minimal. In spring, the soil contains enough moisture to eliminate the need for regular watering. If you have taken care of the nutrition of the soil, then there is no need for fertilizers. Therefore, the first couple of weeks after planting, seedlings simply take root.

In the future, among the main care measures:

  • watering;
  • fertilizer application;
  • weed control;
  • pest control.
If the soil dries out during the formation of the bulbs, the head will crack and may form several bulbs. To prevent this, it is necessary to mulch the beds or water in a timely manner.

Watering and feeding

The roots of the onions are short, and they may earlier be left without moisture in dry land than other plants. If this happens regularly, then the bulbs will not reach the maximum value. Therefore, water the beds as the soil dries.

Drip irrigation is the best option for hydration, it minimizes water consumption and also reduces access to water for weeds. Sprinkler irrigation is also acceptable. It is better to moisten the beds in the morning, since a lot of water evaporates during the day under the bright rays of the sun. Evening watering is unacceptable due to the fact that the roots will be in contact with moisture for too long, which contributes to the appearance of rot. Onions really need a lot of water, but the soil does not have to be moist all the time. The ideal choice is to water the vegetable once a week.

Rules for watering onions:

  • if the soil is dry, water immediately;
  • keep the soil moist until seedlings appear on the beds;
  • water well-drained beds 1 time per week to a depth of 3 cm;
  • stop watering as soon as the tops of the leaves begin to turn yellow - this means that the onion has ripened and the time for harvesting will soon come.

Did you know? In the Middle Ages, onions were similar to monetary units and were used to pay rent, goods and services, as well as gifts.

In addition to the sunny area and the drained soil, onions need fertilizer. In the process of onion growth, you need to carry out 2 dressings. The first is carried out at the stage of 3 green leaves, when the plant accumulates substances for the formation of the bulb, and the process of photosynthesis is actively ongoing. Add urea at the rate of 1 tbsp. l drug per 10 liters of water. Add to it any version of potash fertilizer. This is necessary to enhance cellular processes in the leaves.

When the onion has 5 green leaves, spend the second top dressing with potassium monophosphate as part of 1 tbsp. l on 10 l of water. Fertilizer should be applied until bulb formation is complete.

В состав вносимого основного удобрения обязательно должны входить все 3 макроэлемента (азот, фосфор, калий), необходимые для увеличения размера и веса луковиц. You will need:

  • 1/3 азота (Ν);
  • 1/4 фосфора (P);
  • 1/2 калия (Κ).
Используйте комплексные сбалансированные удобрения. Они отлично удовлетворяют потребности растений, а также обеспечивают высокий урожай и качественные характеристики продукции.

Soil loosening

Когда лук хорошо укоренится, необходимо проводить рыхление почвы в междурядьях. Это связано с тем, что растение не имеет достаточно зелёной массы для подавления сорняков и обладает очень небольшой корневой системой, поэтому не сможет конкурировать с сорняками за влагу и питательные вещества. Садовая мотыга не только удаляет сорняки, но и разрыхляет поверхность почвы и создает тонкую текстуру, что позволяет корням «дышать».

Соблюдайте осторожность, чтобы не повредить корни луковиц. Оптимальная частота обработки почвы — на следующий день после каждого полива. Глубина обработки —3–5 см.

Did you know? При нарезке лука из глаз начинают течь слёзы. Причина в том, что из овоща выделяется серная кислота, которая вызывает слезотечение. Чтобы избежать этого, рекомендуют резать лук под струёй воды либо в тазу с водой.


Эффективно прополоть можно только увлажнённую почву. Начинать полоть стоит с начала грядки, удаляя при этом все прямостоячие сорняки, максимально близко к их корням. Их также можно выдергивать руками. Для удаления ползущих сорняков можно применять секатор. Не пытайтесь удалить весь пырей или другие растения такого же типа — это невозможно до тех пор, пока урожай не будет собран.

В борьбе с сорняками также помогает мульчирование междурядий. Под укрывным материалом не только хорошо сохраняется влага, но и предотвращается прорастание сорняков.

Pest and Disease Control

Если был высажен очень рано, то он не обязательно будет страдать от вредителей, поскольку просто не успеет привлечь вредных насекомых. Однако при выращивании поздних сортов стоит обратить внимание на таких вредителей, как луковая муха или нематоды. Признаком появления луковой мухи являются пожелтевшие в середине сезона стебли.

Сама муха — это небольшое насекомое серого цвета, длиной до 7 мм. На вид она очень похожа на обычную комнатную муху. Появляется, как только установится сухая и солнечная погода. Эта муха опасна тем, что откладывает личинки внутрь стебля, поражая луковицы. Молодые растения могут погибнуть, а старые приостанавливают свой рост. Выкопайте несколько луковиц, чтобы убедиться в наличии или отсутствии белых личинок. Affected plants are removed and burned.

Для борьбы с мухой можно использовать инсектициды («Актару», «Экстрафлор»), но большинство огородников предпочитают народные средства из-за их невысокой токсичности по отношению к зелени. Среди народных способов борьбы — полив грядок солевым раствором (200 г на 10 л воды) или обработка посевов керосином, так как муха плохо переносит его пары. Таким же образом действует опрыскивание посадок табачным раствором, уксусом, содой или борной кислотой.

Также луковицы могут поражаться нематодой. Это небольшие черви длиной до 1, 8 мм. На одном растении их может оказаться до нескольких тысяч. Они живут в грунте, но могут атаковать любые корнеплоды и луковичные. Признаками присутствия нематоды являются деформация листьев, гнилостный запах, особенно после полива, и размягчение луковиц. На начальном этапе поражения можно обратить внимание на белые пятна на луковицах.

Развитие вредителя подавляется соблюдением правил севооборота. На участке, где были обнаружены нематоды, нельзя высаживать лук, горох, бобы или клубнику в течение 4 лет. В качестве меры профилактики грунт нужно обработать мелиорантом перикальцитом. Он способен уничтожать зимующих в почве вредителей как в стадии яиц, так и в виде личинок. Обработку почвы проводят за неделю до посадки лука на грядку. А чтобы обеззаразить посадочный материал, луковицы выдерживают в течение нескольких часов в растворе древесной золы.

Узнайте, почему гниёт лук изнутри и как это предотвратить. Самым серьёзным заболеванием лука является белая гниль. Её споры сохраняются в грунте до 7 лет после уничтожения повреждённых растений. Заболевание проявляется в виде повреждений верхушек листьев: они обесцвечиваются, покрываются водянистым налётом. Для развития болезни нужна высокая влажность. Сам грибок распространяется по ветру и при загущенности посевов успевает поразить плантацию за неделю. Для борьбы с ним используется обработка посевов медным купоросом (2 г) с мочевиной (10 г) и цинком (1 г), растворёнными в 10 л воды. Опрыскивание проводят в качестве меры профилактики, до заражения лука.

Ложная мучнистая роса — это второе по частоте заболевание луковичных. Она проявляется в виде мягкого серого налёта, коричневых пятен на листьях, которые затем засыхают. Луковицы становятся мягкими и непригодными для хранения. Болезнь процветает во влажных условиях, поэтому лучшая мера профилактики — не допускать переувлажнения. Для борьбы с болезнью используется препарат «Байкал Эм-1», которым опрыскивают растения от различных возбудителей болезней, в том числе и ложной мучнистой росы. Также проводят опрыскивание 1%-м раствором бордоской жидкости или раствором серы (50 г на 10 л воды).

Did you know? Согласно Книге рекордов Гиннесса, самый большой лук был выращен британским фермером Питером Глейзбруком в 2011 году и весил около 9 кг.

Harvesting and storage of crops

Когда 75% стеблей пожелтеют и опадут — лук готов к выкапыванию. Нужно прекратить полив за 2 недели до уборки урожая. Если стоит влажная погода и лук всё не желтеет, то можно приподнять луковицы, потянув их за листья, — разрыв части корешков вызовет прекращение роста, и листва начнёт отмирать.

Собирайте урожай в солнечный сухой день. Выкопанный лук следует сушить в течение 2 недель в сухом, хорошо проветриваемом помещении, а затем уложить в ящики или сплести в косички для дальнейшего хранения.

Не забывайте, что не все сорта лука могут храниться одинаково долго. Поэтому не смешивайте их в ящиках и используйте сначала те, срок хранения которых меньше. Не закладывайте на хранение повреждённые луковицы или те, на которых присутствуют какие-либо деформации.

Узнайте, как правильно обрезать лук для длительного хранения.

Useful recommendations from gardeners

Лук прекрасно растёт на большинстве участков и с любыми почвами. Но всё же фермерами был выработан ряд дополнительных рекомендаций, придерживаясь которых, начинающие огородники могут получить более высокие урожаи со своих грядок:

  1. Используйте только свежий семенной материал каждый год. Всхожесть семян, которые вы храните, уменьшается на 30–40% ежегодно. Свежие семена не только лучше всходят, но и не будут заражены случайными фитопатогенами.
  2. Тёплая погода ускоряет процесс прорастания чернушки. При температуре 16–18° С ростки появятся уже через 1 неделю, а при низких температурах (1–10° С) — только через 2–3 недели.
  3. Все проводимые подкормки вносят в корневую зону лука. Не поливайте грунт там, куда корневая система растения просто не дотянется.
  4. Лучший урожай даёт богатый, хорошо перегнивший компост.
  5. Удаляйте сорняки регулярно, чтобы лук получил достаточно питательных веществ.
  6. Помните, что мульчирование более эффективно, чем прополка. Этот агротехнический приём просто не позволяет сорнякам прорастать, а также предотвращает корневую систему от контакта с некоторыми вредителями, в том числе с луковой мухой.

Итак, теперь вы знаете, как получить богатый урожай лука на вашем участке и что нужно для того, чтобы вырастить вкусный лук из семян-чернушки. Помните, что наличие хорошего посадочного материала является главным ключом к успеху в этом деле.

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