Black Currant Charm - Key Features
The result of planting on a suburban plot of blackcurrant will be the fruits of this plant: they have a pleasant taste and aroma, carry a huge complex of substances that are useful for the human body. Gardeners are faced with the question of how to choose the best variety, which will not cause trouble and will give a high yield. It is worth paying attention to the large-fruited variety Charm, which fully complies with these requirements.
Description of Blackcurrant Variety Charm
Variety Charm contains a lot of positive properties that allow the cultivation of fruit and berry crops both in summer cottages and on industrial plantations. Undemanding plants to care and an excellent stable crop are two main factors that make currant Charm so popular.
Did you know? In the world there are about 150 species of wild currants. It grows on all continents of the globe, with the exception of Antarctica and Australia.
Large berries perfectly retain their shape, so mechanized assembly is allowed. In addition, the fruits are universal - they can be consumed fresh, frozen, dried and processed, preparing delicious jams, compotes, jams. In industry, berries are also made from berries, juices, added to confectionery, ice cream. The leaves of the plant are a healing remedy in folk medicine that helps to overcome colds.
Blackcurrant has been of great interest to breeders for many decades. In particular, their work is aimed at growing varieties that are resistant to high and low temperature conditions, various diseases. Particular emphasis is placed on the quality of the fruit and the increase in yield.
One of such successful examples can be safely called a currant variety with the beautiful name Charm. The culture was developed by the Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding. The authors of the project are scientists T. P. Ogoltsova and S. D. Knyazev, who crossed the varieties Exotica and Sunderbyun-II. The resulting culture passed the test period when its growth was monitored under different conditions. As a result, she was listed in the State Register in 2007.
Read also articles on this topic:
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Variety Charm is represented by tall (about 2 m), not very branching shrubs, with dark brown lignified and young green shoots. Currant leaves have 5 blades of saturated green color with small teeth along the edges or slightly corrugated plate. Leaves may have a light matte shade. At the beginning of May, from the 5th to the 12th, a period of bud opening begins. The bush at this time does not have a special decorative effect, since the flowers have a rather faded color.
Currant fruits - round large berries, with good care, reaching a weight of up to 3.5 g (average weight - 2–2.2 g). The flesh of the berries is juicy, medium-skinned, black in color with a shiny surface. Taste - sweet and sour, dessert, on a tasting scale rated at 4.8 points.
Did you know? Currants in ancient times were called the “monastery berry”: in ancient chronicles dating to the 11th century, it is indicated that they were grown on the territories of monasteries and used for food and medicinal purposes. Only in the XVI century, black currants began to grow in the adjacent areas.
Currants are considered to be one of the most useful berry crops. The chemical composition of berries contains vitamins of groups A, B, K, PP, C, as well as active substances such as:
- minerals (calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium);
- essential oils (have bactericidal properties);
- volatile substances that kill viruses;
- digestion pectin and tannins;
- organic acids that have an effective antimicrobial effect.
The ripening period of berries occurs 2 months after flowering - from July 7 to July 15. Berries ripen together and hold tightly on the branches until they are picked. Productivity is high - up to 120 c fruits are harvested from 1 ha.
Advantages and disadvantages
Variety Charm has incorporated many of the advantages of its predecessors, and in some ways surpassed them.
- Judging from the scientific description carried out as a result of selection tests, as well as reviews by gardeners, culture has the following advantages:
- stable high yield;
- friendly ripening of fruits;
- pleasant taste and substantial benefits of fruits;
- good winter hardiness;
- suitability for mechanized assembly;
- self-fertility (does not require other pollinators);
- resistance to pests, as well as diseases (powdery mildew, spotting, columnar rust).
Along with all the advantages, the variety has some disadvantages.
- These include:
- strong lowering of branches under the weight of the fruit (it is desirable to build a support);
- poor development of shoots.
The technique of growing currants is not particularly difficult, but you need to know the main points - how to water, when to feed the crop so that it does not hurt and bears fruit well. It is important to choose a good site for planting, so that the plant does not feel any discomfort and does not hurt.
Planting dates, selection of seedlings
Currants can be planted in spring and autumn . The spring period is not considered the most favorable in the sense that you need to guess the timing. The soil should be sufficiently warm, and at the same time it is necessary to catch it before the start of the growing season. It is best to carry out work in the last week of March or early April.
Video: How to properly care and plant currants
Autumn is the most favorable period. They begin landing in early October. Before the onset of frost, the culture will have time to settle down in a new place, fertilizers will saturate the soil well, and in the spring currants with full strength will start growing.
It is better to buy seedlings from trusted sellers or in nurseries, especially if you intend to plant the selected variety Charm . If your site already has this plant, you can get material for planting from it.
Seat selection and landing
For currants, it is preferable to choose a sunny area - a good warming will ensure high productivity and reduce the likelihood of diseases. At the same time, try to plant the shrub so that it is not in an open area, where strong gusts of wind and drafts can lead to brittle shoots and shedding of berries during fruiting.
Read more about where to plant currants - in the shade or in the sun.
Currants love moist soil. It can tolerate dry periods, but not for long - in the end, the lack of watering will not affect the size and taste of the fruit for the better. At the same time, conditions of increased humidity are contraindicated for the plant - bogging and high groundwater flow will adversely affect the roots . In addition, it is an excellent environment for the development of various infections. It is better to plant a shrub in a slightly elevated area and provide it with proper watering.
If you have already chosen a site, you can start preparing the landing pit: you need to dig a hole with a diameter and depth of about 40-50 cm. If you plan to plant several bushes, keep a distance of about 1.5 meters between the pits. At the bottom of the pit, it is desirable to lay a low (10 cm) layer of rubble, which will play the role of a drainage layer. Fertilizers are then filled up: several shovels of soil are mixed with 5 kg of compost, 80 g of superphosphate and 30 g of wood ash.
Also learn how to transplant currants in the fall to a new place.
The seedling is placed in the center of the pit, watered (5-6 liters of water per 1 bush), sprinkled with earth and watered again. When the earth settles, the top layer can be sprinkled with sand, which at the same time will play the role of mulching material.
The first two weeks after planting, the shrub should be regularly watered, doing this 2-3 times a week. Under each bush, 5-7 liters of settled water are poured. If fertilizers were introduced into the soil during planting, the following fertilizing can be started in the second or third year.
In the future, plant care will consist of the following main actions:
- Watering . The need for watering and their quantity depends on weather conditions. If the spring turned out to be rainy, there is no need for watering (with strong bays of the soil, sometimes you have to dig out drainage grooves in order to remove excess moisture). If it rains a little, you can water the currants 1-2 times a week, delivering 8-10 liters of water to adult bushes. In dry summer periods, the number of irrigations can be increased by observing that the soil is moistened 30–40 cm in depth. In the fall, a mandatory water-charging irrigation is carried out (about 30 liters per 1 bush) so that the plant wintes well.
- Loosening the soil . Along with watering, it is advisable to loosen the soil, removing weed grass. This is necessary so that a crust does not form on the surface of the earth, which will be a barrier to the supply of oxygen.
- Mulching . Laying mulching material (sand, peat) helps preserve soil moisture, preventing evaporation. Several times during the season you need to change the mulch, as harmful microorganisms can take root in it.
- Top dressing . The main portions of fertilizers are applied in the spring and autumn periods. In spring, fertilizers containing nitrogen are used - they provoke good growth and development of shoots. An effective drug is a urea solution (50 g per 10 l of water per 1 planting). Before budding of the buds and after flowering, leaf feeding of the mine can be carried out.
real compounds. In autumn, the soil is fertilized with organic matter - for example, you can add 3-4 kg of rotted manure under each bush.
Pest and Disease Control
One of the advantages of the black currant variety Charm is resistance to powdery mildew, rust and spotting . However, the list of ailments does not end there: the culture can suffer from diseases such as tuberculosis, scab, etc. Effective fungicides, such as Nitrofen, Acrex, help get rid of diseases, and it is advisable to carry out several sprayings with an interval of 2-3 weeks. As a prevention in the spring and autumn, shrubs are treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Important! Chemicals can be addictive in pests, resulting in reduced effectiveness of treatments. Means need to be alternated, selecting similar in action.
The most dangerous pests of currants are:
- aphid - the appearance of this insect, which feeds on the sap of a plant, is characterized by the appearance of yellow-orange swellings on the leaves and then shoots;
- ants are frequent companions of aphids that feed on its secretions. The appearance of ants can be determined with the naked eye. If you find an ant hill nearby, move it with a shovel to a remote area of the garden;
- fireworks - insects lay eggs in flowers, from which caterpillars soon devour the fruits of currants (one individual can spoil up to 15 berries);
- ticks (kidney, arachnoid) are the most dangerous carriers of diseases. Their appearance can be determined by the appearance of small bright spots (spider mite colonies) or destroyed kidneys (traces of a kidney tick).
They fight the planting of pests with the insecticides Fufanon, Inta-Vir, and Actellik. To protect the plant from the attacks of these harmful insects, it is necessary to periodically treat the bushes with a 2% solution of Karbofos or Fundazol.
A good measure is spraying shrubs in early spring (you can even in the snow) with hot water heated to 80 ° C. To avoid the appearance of a firegun, the larvae of which creep out of the soil in early spring, you can lay a ruberoid for this period under the bushes.
Read more about scalding gooseberry and currant bushes in boiling water in early spring.
Trimming and shaping a bush
The shrub should undergo two main prunings - in early spring and autumn, in preparation for winter . The rest of the time you need to observe the culture, remove damaged and diseased branches. Since currant Charm does not grow very much, thinning shrubs is rare.
In the spring, you need to inspect the bushes, cut the broken shoots, and also shorten the branches of the second order by 30–40 cm. In autumn, in addition to damaged fragments, old stems are cut off, which can be determined by the black color of the bark. You also need to get rid of young basal shoots and branches that do not give branching.
Preparing for the winter
In October, currant bushes begin to prepare for winter. To do this, carry out a control pruning, weeding the site, clean and burn all the garbage. After this, the soil should be well watered, loosened, fertilizing, covered with fresh mulch (the summer mulch layer must be removed from the garden). To protect currants from the dominance of insects and fungi, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment from diseases and pests.
You will be interested to know what frost currants can withstand in the spring.
Currant variety Charm refers to winter-hardy - its root system is able to withstand frosts up to –30 ° С. But the bushes survive the frosty winter well if they are under a thick layer of snow. Since the current winters are not always pleasing with an abundance of rainfall, it is better to cover the bushes with burlap, spanbond or coniferous paws, bending the shoots to the ground first.
If you already have Charm currant bush on the plot and are quite satisfied with its growth, productivity and excellent taste of berries, you can multiply the shrub, getting new seedlings, and plant a whole plantation. Seed propagation is not recommended, as seedlings grown from them will still not outstrip all the characteristics of the mother bush . To do this, it is better to use cuttings, shoots or simply divide the overgrown bush. Before you take the material, make sure that the bush is healthy and does not have pests.
In early October (no later than 10 numbers) cuttings are cut from shoots at the age of 2-3 years - twigs about 12 cm long with 5-6 healthy buds. Foliage should be removed from the cuttings so that it does not pick up moisture.
Important! It is better not to cut the tops of the shoots - as a rule, aphid eggs are laid here and fungal spores develop, which are not noticeable at first glance.
For planting cuttings, a separate bed with fertilized moistened soil is isolated. Cuttings are deepened into the ground so that a couple of buds remain on top. They are placed at an angle, observing a distance between plantings of 10-15 cm, and between rows - about 50 cm. Until the spring, the bed is covered using spunbond or ordinary dark polyethylene. By spring, the material will take root, and by the next fall, full-grown bushes will grow from it, which can be planted on permanent platforms.
Green cuttings are cut in late May - early June, when a new shoot is formed on old branches. To do this, take a 2-year-old shoot from the bush and cut it so that each stalk has 2-3 cm of old wood in the lower part.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with whether currant bushes should be whitened.
Material is planted on a prepared bed, observing a distance of 10–20 cm . Each stalk should be deepened to the height of the wood. Planting is watered and mulched. A good root system in cuttings is formed already in the fall - by this time the aerial part reaches 30–40 cm.
Reproduction by layering is carried out in early spring . To do this, it is necessary to identify several lateral shoots (one- or two-year-old) on the bush that are located closest to the ground. On the side of the shoots in the soil, they dig out grooves about 10 cm deep. The shoots are tilted and pinned in the middle of the grooves, sprinkled with soil, watered.
Read also how to tie currants.
The top should remain above the surface of the earth (it can even be supported a little to keep it upright). By autumn, the cuttings will take root well, they can be separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place, but it is better to play it safe and carry out the procedure next spring.
Dividing the bush
Reproduction of currants by dividing the bush is carried out in autumn (mid-October) or early spring (in March), before buds open. A large overgrown bush is carefully dug up from all sides and uprooted. In advance, you need to prepare and fertilize planting pits for new bushes.
We advise you to read how and when currants bloom.
The dug bush is cut with rhizome into several parts so that each branch has young branches with a well-developed root . The material is immediately transplanted to a new place, without waiting until it begins to wither and dry.
Harvesting and transportation of the crop, shelf life of berries
Harvesting starts in the first half of July. The berries ripen quite amicably - and this is a big plus, since you do not have to carry out the assembly in several stages. The fruits of currant Charm are not prone to shedding, unless the bush grows in an area open to drafts and gusty winds.
Read also how to use soda for a plentiful harvest of blackcurrant.
Berries are harvested in dry weather. This is best done in the early morning or evening. Fold the fruits in a low container in several rows so that they do not choke under their own weight.
In a cool place, fresh currant berries can be stored for about 2-3 weeks. If the fruits were harvested in rainy weather, it is better to dry them first. Чтобы сохранить урожай на зиму, плоды можно заморозить или засушить, а смородиновое варенье или джем станут прекрасным лакомством в зимний период.
Сорт чёрной смородины Очарование — отличный выбор для дачного участка. Его крупноплодность и высокая урожайность позволят не только вдоволь полакомиться и насытить организм полезными веществами, но и продлить этот период до весны, употребляя вкусные компоты и варенья.