The best methods and schemes for the formation of grapes
Formation is one of the leading factors affecting the future grape harvest. The energy of the vine should be spent primarily on strengthening wood and the formation of ripe fruits, so the main task of decoration is the competent distribution of nutrients and providing them with the main shoots. This article will help you understand the correct technique for maintaining grape shoots, as well as in choosing the most optimal pruning method for your vineyard.
The Importance of Grape Formation
Since we are talking about a plant culture, which is a vine, you should take into account the specifics of the growth of such plants. It is important to begin the design of grape bushes at the initial stage of cultivation - in the fall, after rooting in the ground. Further fruitfulness depends on how comfortable the young bush will feel. If you do not pay attention to the issue of initial grape management, the shoots will grow randomly and in subsequent years will not give a good harvest.
Find out when it is best to plant grapes.
It is important not to let the young shrubs bear fruit abundantly - the emphasis should be on ensuring the strength and health of the plant. This can be achieved by preventing the full ripening of the fruit, that is, by eating unripe bunches. Leave one brush on each plant. Forming sleeves, pay attention to the first 4 years of the life of the creeper.
Terms and basic rules of formation
The whole process of making a creeper takes about 4-6 years. Escape work begins on average after the 2nd year of cultivation. It is enough to determine the most suitable type and stock up with information on how to correctly perform all the procedures. After about 3 years of vegetation, the grape shrub will begin to produce crops.
Did you know? The most weighty bunch in the world was grown in Chile in 1984. Her weight was almost 9.4 kg.
At this stage and in future years, your task will be to maintain the desired shape, based on the model of your vineyard. Equally important for a young vine is proper autumn pruning. In order to prevent soreness of the bush or to change the taste of the plant, another variety can be grafted.
Factors determining the choice of grape formation
Based on external factors, it is necessary to choose the most suitable form for grapes:
- Soil fertility. Powerful and tall grape varieties require fertile fields and a large supply of water. For these varieties, two-sleeve formation is excellent. Poor soil with scarce irrigation requires the design of the vine in a form that does not have a large number of sleeves. Under such conditions, the shrub reaches a length of 3 m. Such tall varieties are cultivated using trellis (pergolas).
- The climate of the region. From climatic conditions, winter frosts, humidity levels, the presence or absence of frosts, strong winds, as well as strong summer winds influence the choice of the formation pattern. Much attention should be paid to the formation of grapes in the northern region, where weak growth and poor fruiting are often observed.
- Grape sort. The nuance lies in the strength of the growth of a particular variety and some other features. For example, varieties such as Tauris, Husayn, Parkent, prefer highly developed formations with thick old wood. Weak species (Aligote, Chasla), on the contrary, need underdeveloped medium-sized forms with thin old wood.
The main types of formation of the grape bush, their patterns and descriptions
Bushes of most grape varieties give juicy fruits that can be eaten fresh. At the same time, technical table varieties are intended for the manufacture of juices, soft drinks and compotes. As a rule, green leaves serve as a natural defense of bunches from scorching sunlight.
But excessive thickening of the bush can lead to the fact that the berries will not be enough sunlight, and the quality of the fruit will decrease. Next, we present the main types of decoration of grape vines, among which are trellis-free, capitate, stem and azmana models.
On the trellis
In the middle lane and in the southern areas, the most popular is the formation of grape vine on a trellis.
Did you know? The world's oldest 400-year-old vineyard grows in the small Slovenian city of Maribor. This old vine continues to bear fruit and produces fruit for 100 bottles of wine every year.
Consider the basic rules of this type:
- When planting a seedling, the lower eye should be located above 10 cm from the soil surface.
- The number of sleeves on a single-plane support should be 2, 3 or 4.
- It is necessary to organize a two-plane trellis with a drooping growth, capable of increasing fruitfulness by about 35%.
- Installation is carried out in a north-south direction to ensure proper lighting and ventilation of the site throughout the day.
- Intake columns up to 3.5 m high are deepened into the soil up to 60 cm and placed at a distance of 3-4 m.
- A wire is pulled between the vertical trellises.
- Between the rows observe the required distance of 2-3 m.
In this way, the vine is made out in those areas where it is exposed to low temperatures. In the fall season, pruning is carried out, after which the branches are bent, and before the frost comes, they are covered. It is worth remembering that the cordon covers a considerable area, so it requires more labor-intensive care.
It is formed in 1 or 2 directions. A cordon is removed by creating 1 long-term powerful sleeve, from which a fruit link departs at a distance of about 0.3 m. In order to extend the cordon, the main extreme stem is annually cut to a strong eye. The main stem is laid horizontally. As for all other shoots, they are grown vertically.
Guyot is a classic creeper management model with a wire that inhibits bush growth. With this type of formation, the liana develops upward, clutching the wire. The trellis is supported here. After winter pruning, the fruiting stem closest to the stem remains. This shoot is cut off so that 6-15 eyes remain on it.
Read also about how to properly tie the grapes.
Then the stalk is bent and tied to the bottom wire. Here in the future brushes will form. The next fruiting branch on the stem is cut into 2 eyes. In the coming year, this shoot will bring berries. The height of the stem can vary from 30 to 80 cm.
Video: Guillot double-armed formation
According to Kurdyumov
The main idea of an experienced gardener Kurdyumov in the formation of grapes is that it is easier to pinch a growing shoot in time and prevent the growth of an unnecessary branch than to prune the wrong branch. Pruning is a technique that you have to deal with if you do not pay attention to the systematic formation of the plant. For example, the owner of a vineyard does not have time to form bushes or does not know how to do it correctly. The grapes grow as he pleases, and ultimately you have to resort to large-scale pruning.
You will also be interested to learn how to make a pergola for grapes with your own hands.
If from the moment the shoots begin to grow, pinch off the green tops with a fingernail, and instead of shortening the branches, simply bending them at small angles in the right directions - then the crop will almost not need to be pruned. Thus, by ordinary pinching, you can cause the growth of shoots and fruits where you need; you can ask them the necessary direction, and in some places - to limit their growth. However, such a rigorous formation must be dealt with approximately every 2 weeks.
Gobel, or Goble (tree, alberello) - the oldest scheme for maintaining vine bushes, which is still used today in farms that produce high-quality rare wines. This type of trimming does not allow mechanizing work on the site.
Important! When forming according to the Goble method, yield indicators are rather low, therefore this method is not suitable for growing berries for mass production of wine.
Supports for creepers are individually mounted stakes. When trimming the stamp is left very short, its height is from 30 to 65 cm. The plants are cut so that there are 3 sleeves growing up. In autumn, you can observe how the sleeves bend under the weight of the hands.
The formation of the cordon according to the method of Belikova promotes the formation of better clusters in large-fruited varieties (these varieties bear fruit better with a long formation). In fact, this is the same horizontal cordon, but without the main trunk. This method will take a lot of time, but for the sake of a larger supply of perennial bark and the ability to make long pruning for fruiting, it is worth using it.
Read more about how to properly and when to plant grapes.
In the first year of growing grapes, it is important to grow abundant growth. One-year-old wood should reach a minimum length of 2 m. If it was not possible to achieve such results on time, the necessary length can be grown next year.
Video: Belikova cordon
According to Akovantsev
According to the recommendations of wine-grower Mikhail Akovantsev, the ideal growth of shrubs during the growing season is determined by the following criteria:
- there should not be too high stems;
- the number of stepsons should be moderate;
- the diameter of the stems should be between 8-10 mm.
Making an arbor (shelving, arch, pergola) is a method of forming uncovered tall varieties of grapes. For this, supports and other structures with horizontal, inclined or rounded arches are used. Such products are located at various heights, but not less than 2 m from the ground level. Bushes are planted on both sides of the structure, and their crowns are evenly distributed in space (in a horizontal, and if necessary in a vertical position).
When raising vines on the gazebo, large vertical cordon and long-sleeve fan models, as well as their various combinations, are usually used. Due to the wide variety of arbor constructions, a uniform formula for maintaining lianas does not exist for all cases. Each gazebo or arch is considered separately and, depending on the wishes of the owner, they select an individual formation scheme.
Video: the formation of grapes on the arch
Features of the reformation of old bushes
All of the above methods relate to the formation of a young vine. However, one should not forget about the old shrubs, the care of which is also carried out according to certain rules. First of all, it is important to free the entire bottom of the vineyard to provide good ventilation. In addition, it is necessary to cut off all thin branches.
Check out the grape harvest rules.
Next, proceed to the following actions:
- Decide on the size of the plot required by the plant for comfortable growth : if it is a loggia, short sleeves will suffice; for a gazebo, a standard or cordon is ideal; make a cordon or fan for the trellis.
- Cut the old bush exclusively on internodes . Trim with a high-quality secateurs with a fairly sharp blade.
- With significant death of the kidneys, pay attention to creating an enhanced fruit link. To form a link, select 2 vines each year, one of which should have vegetative and fruit lashes. Based on the shape of the vineyard, create 1, 2 or more sleeves.
- Withdraw the cordon and trunk in such a way that the sleeve does not take shape at the very top of the liana.
- Throughout the summer season, the shoots should be tied to a support.
- After harvesting (closer to the cold weather), cut the vine with fruit lashes in such a way that only a few ripened new samples remain on the vegetative part. In this case, one branch should be cut into 8–9 eyes, and the other - by 2–3.
Care of the vineyard after the formation is necessary for the reason that many wounds form on the vine. The greatest threat comes from sections with a diameter of more than 1.5 cm. These "injuries" can significantly weaken the bush and even destroy it. Sliced sections may begin to rot. In addition, they play the role of an “open window” for pathogenic bacteria. To prevent such severe consequences of pruning, gloss over dried scars with melted garden varieties.
Important! Of particular importance is the fight against harmful insects in the fall. If we neglect the autumn preventive treatment of the vineyard with insecticides, in spring we can expect a sharp increase in the number of parasites.
After treating the wounds, the vineyard should undergo spraying against parasitic insects, especially grape itch (felt mite), as well as against fungal diseases (spotted anthracnose, white and gray rot). For the treatment of bushes, use chemical and biological agents (for example, Bordeaux, Fitosporin, Trichodermin, Gamair, Gliokladin, Oksikhom, Actellik).
Common mistakes when cutting bushes
When pruning grapes, beginners often make mistakes that reduce yield and gradually lead to early death of the bush. In this case, the plant becomes ill before it reaches the level necessary for the crop.
Learn how to prune grapes correctly in spring.
For beginner farmers, we present the most common oversights when pruning a vineyard:
- Erroneous determination of the length of pruning stems of different ages. It is necessary to exclude the harmful effects of transverse and longitudinal polarity (uneven growth of stems). Therefore, in the process of spring formation, keep in mind that the length of the cut off part depends directly on the thickness of the stem. The thicker it is, the longer it should remain after formation.
- Pitying a young bush, inexperienced growers shorten the tops and get rid of dried branches. Although it would be correct to trim the lion's share of growth. The result of such a gross error is the interweaving of branches among themselves. And the next few years, the branches obscure the rays of the sun. Fruit-bearing stems lack nutrients, they form small berries, devoid of bright taste and aroma.
- Incorrectly assuming that thick stems are more durable and will yield a greater harvest in the future, beginners cut off young specimens. Thick shoots are subject to pruning.