The best honey plants for bees

In order to get 100 g of honey, a bee in search of raw materials must fly 46 thousand km - this distance corresponds to the length of the equator. Due to the laboriousness of the honey collection process, many beekeepers specially sow long flowering perennials with copious amounts of nectar and pollen near the hives, thereby launching a continuous flower conveyor from early spring to late autumn. Find out which honeybearing plants beekeepers recommend for the temperate climatic zone, when to sow them and how to alternate - you will learn further from the article.

Features of honey plants

If initially the feed base of bees consisted of flowering trees, shrubs and meadow forbs, then modern beekeepers have expanded bribes with specially sown crops, which at times increase the productivity of honey collection.

Did you know? An average bee family can collect up to 10 kg of honey per day. To do this, she will need to visit about 80 million flowers.

Botanists isolate melliferous trees, bushes and grasses into a separate group of angiosperms, the flowers of which are characterized by unique glands that produce sugary liquid. These are nectaries, which may consist of flattened dots, strongly elevated tubercles or deepened grooves at the base of the buds.

Abundant bribes are possible from wild meadow and forest grasses, as well as from specially grown, agricultural, fruit and berry, park and ornamental crops. Among them, beekeepers consider the most promising: clover, sunflower, buckwheat, acacia, maple, linden, melilot, fatseliya.

The peculiarity of these plants is the intensive production of nectar during the flowering period, based on evolutionary processes aimed at cross-pollination of flowers using insects.

The period of budding and the formation of cotyledons, as well as the amount of sugar released, depends on the biological characteristics of each type of vegetation, climatic and geographical factors. An unstable indicator of the produced nectar and pollen is affected by the time of day. In some perennials, more of it appears in the morning (for example, oregano, vetch), in others - in the afternoon (phacelia, honeycomb), and in others - in the evening (medunica).

In sunny weather, bees collect nectar, processing it for honey and bee bread. If the bribe was obtained from cherries, poplars, birch or other plants that produce resinous substances, then the final product of insects will be propolis and ouza.

It is typical that most honey plants have medicinal properties, but the amount of nectar secreted by one flower is different. For example, in linden this indicator is 0.14–7.55 mg, in clover - 0.19 mg, and in tropical orchids - 30 g. In addition, not all plants are characterized by dustiness.

Did you know? Every day, in search of food, bees explore an area of ​​about 12 hectares.

Honey plant classification

Bees can get a good bribe equally from grasses, as well as from bushes or trees.

Depending on the time of the appearance of peduncles, all plants with abundant formation of nectar are classified into several types:

  • early spring (willow);
  • spring (most fruit crops);
  • summer (sunflower);
  • autumn (peppermint).
The main task of the beekeeper is the skillful selection of honey plants, which will provide honey with signs of high-grade and valuable components, as well as allow the bees to continuously collect nectar for its production during the warm season.

Based on the characteristics of flowering plants, among them can be distinguished:

  • nectaronoses are very rare plants that have extra-flowering nectaries (vetch);
  • dust - bearing plants - characterized by a nondescript, but plentiful flowering without bright petals (birch, elm, grapes, hazel);
  • nectar-dusts (acacia, buckwheat).

Trees and bushes

The names of honey plants common in the temperate zone can be found in the tables below.

Fruit trees:

Name of cultureWhen bloomsQualitative characteristics of honey
Apple treeThroughout May (depending on variety)
  • light yellow color;
  • pronounced smell and taste
CherryThe last April decadespecific light color
PearThe last decade of Aprilspecific light color
Sweet cherryStarts in the second decade of Apriltransparency
PlumMid springwhitish tint
Cherry plumFirst half of april-
ApricotLast 2 weeks of April-
QuinceBeginning of april-

Other types of trees:

Name of cultureWhen bloomsQualitative characteristics of honey
LindenThe last decade of Junelight shade of amber color
MapleFirst half of april-
WillowThe first decade of April
  • golden yellow hue;
  • the appearance of fine grain after crystallization
White AcaciaThe end of spring - the beginning of summer
  • transparency;
  • the absence of a crystallization process for a long time, and after its onset the product becomes like snow flakes
Horse ChestnutThe end of spring - the beginning of summer
  • low grade;
  • excessive fluid;
  • fast crystallization;
  • transparency
Sophora JapaneseSecond half of summer
  • light color;
  • high grade


Name of cultureWhen bloomsQualitative characteristics of honey
Currant (black and red)Early spring (before flowering trees)-
RaspberryThe beginning of June
  • light color;
  • specific taste;
  • raspberry smell
BlackberryFrom mid-May to mid-June
  • transparency;
  • rich taste
BarberryLast May Decade
  • golden yellow color;
  • strong smell;
  • excellent taste
BlueberriesBeginning of May - Mid-June
  • transparency;
  • crimson shade
ViburnumAfter the apple trees (flowering lasts about 2 weeks)-
Sea buckthornFrom the second half of April to the end of May-
RowanMid may
  • crimson shade;
  • pronounced aroma
BuckthornFrom late spring to early fall
  • faint odor;
  • brown color with slight yellowness;
  • specific taste
HeatherIn August and September
  • low grade;
  • rich yellow color with a light brown tint;
  • pronounced smell;
  • astringency in taste;
  • slow crystallization

Grass and flowers

To increase the productivity of honey collection, experienced beekeepers sow one- and perennial nectar-bearing plants in the apiary. It can be field or fodder agricultural, essential oil, medicinal herbs or decorative flowers. The main thing is that they are stunted.

Important! Honey that has been crystallized is strictly forbidden to melt at temperatures above + 50 ° C. This is due to toxic substances formed in the product, which are very harmful to human health.

Outside the place where the hives are located, you can plan crops of tall crops. When cultivating them, it is important to take into account not only the flowering period, but also adaptability to the climatic conditions of a particular region. Indeed, not all honey carriers can adapt to the sharp heat-moisture differences characteristic of the middle band. Dry summers, harsh winters, early or late spring, variable atmospheric circulation and frequent cyclones are well tolerated by the plants listed below.


Name of culture

When bloomsQualitative characteristics of honey
SageSecond half of summer
  • high grade;
  • pronounced smell;
  • excellent taste
MelissaSecond half of summer
  • transparency;
  • pleasant taste characteristics;
  • strong aroma
BoragoSecond half of summer
  • transparency;
  • light coloured;
  • excellent taste;
  • saturated smell


June August
  • pale yellow color;
  • fast crystallization
grayFirst half of summer
  • golden yellow hue;
  • fast crystallization (after it changes color to yellow-cream)
CorianderThe last decade of June - early July
  • transparency;
  • Strong smell;
  • specific taste
SnakeheadIt blooms for a month from the second half of July to August
  • light shade;
  • transparency;
  • excellent taste;
  • lemon flavor
LavenderJune August
  • top-notch;
  • golden color;
  • smell;
  • healing characteristics
MintAll summer long
  • pale yellow color;
  • mint smell;
  • good taste
CarawayThe end of spring - the beginning of summer
  • light yellow color;
  • delicate taste
AniseFirst half of summer
  • rich specific aroma;
  • healing properties

Feed grasses:

Name of culture

When bloomsQualitative characteristics of honey
PhaceliaEarly summer
  • high grade;
  • pronounced smell;
  • excellent taste;
  • white-green color
BruiseFirst half of summer
  • top-notch;
  • amber;
  • slow crystallization
Clover white and pink-
  • in terms of quality characteristics, it is leading among other light varieties of honey;
  • crystallizes poorly
redJune August
  • colorless (rarely a purplish-yellow hue);
  • transparency;
  • high taste;
  • after crystallization is transformed into a thick solid substance of white color
Alfalfa sowing-
  • white or amber color;
  • ductility;
  • specific taste;
  • fast crystallization
crescentAll summer
SainfoinThe last decade of May - early June
  • light coloured;
  • transparency;
  • high taste;
  • aroma
DonnikannualA large number of
  • colorless;
  • subtle vanilla flavor;
  • superior quality
    biennialBlooms in the second year in mid-June for 40–45 days
    • light yellow tint;
    • aroma; the smell resembles vanilla);
    • high quality
    VikaThe second decade of May - mid-June-

    Other types of herbs:

    Name of culture

    When bloomsQualitative characteristics of honey
    MignonetteAll summer
    • high grade;
    • similarity to linden honey
    BuckwheatThe second decade of June
    • color variation (from brown-yellow to thick-brown);
    • specific thickening after crystallization (honey acquires a mushy consistency)
    SunflowerBeginning of July - September (depending on the timing of sowing)
    • golden yellow hue;
    • early crystallization
    Rape winterPlentiful, lemon
    • pale yellow color;
    • increased density;
    • fast crystallization;
    • poor solubility in water;
    • tendency to spoil
    springJune July
    CottonSummer is the beginning of autumn
    • transparency;
    • the appearance of whiteness and fine grain after crystallization;
    • specific taste and smell
    Motherwort (officinalis)The second decade of July - the beginning of autumn
    • light golden hue;
    • specific taste
    MarshmallowIt blooms in the second year from the second half of July to mid-August
    • high quality;
    • healing properties
    AngelicaIt blooms in the second year from June to August
    • reddish-yellow hue;
    • pronounced pleasant smell;
    • high taste

    These herbs are ideal for large and small land. They develop well in the steppe and forest-steppe zones, mountain and piedmont massifs of the northern, central, southwestern zones of the Russian Federation and in the suburbs.

    According to experts, the most productive in terms of beekeeping region of the Russian Federation is Bashkiria. This fact is due to the uniqueness of honey plants, which local botanists have more than 350 names. The local nature is so rich and diverse that sometimes you can’t even think that 2 different varieties were obtained in the same locality. That is why experts distinguish meadow, mountain Bashkir honey, and also classify it according to honey plants (clover, acacia, linden, etc.). Did you know? The most expensive honey is produced in Israel. Local beekeepers sell kilograms of bee products for $ 17–20. In the harsh conditions of Siberia, weeds are the main source of nectar and pollen.

    In particular, we are talking about:

    • hemlock speckled - grows everywhere, is characterized by high nectar and dust content, is well visited by bees;

    • peat marsh - prefers marshy meadows, forest glades and shrubs, its honey productivity corresponds to 300 kg / ha;

    • Syria seedlings - even a small amount of this grass in agricultural crops leads to significant losses in productivity. Bees visit this plant well and collect up to 250 kg of nectar from it (per hectare of whole area);

    • field sow thistle - is found everywhere, gives a lot of pollen and nectar, honey collection is 380 kg / ha;

    • cornflower meadow - represents a group of nectar-dust plants, well visited by bees, its honey productivity in terms of continuous massifs is more than 110 kg / ha;

    • milkweed spicy - this weed is a good honey plant and at the same time an aggressor, because it displaces all plants growing near it. Its honey productivity is 250 kg / ha.

    Types of the best honey plants

    In order to properly draw up a flowering calendar of nectar-pollen beet plants for a particular area, you should familiarize yourself with the best honey plants of the country.

    Melilot white and yellow

    Both types of clover are two-year-old tall plants with ternate foliage and densely branched stems, at the end of which flower brushes form. In the white variety, their length is much shorter compared to yellow. Important! Honey can cause allergic reactions, therefore it is categorically contraindicated for allergy sufferers. They bloom annually throughout the summer, at times increasing the number of buds in the second growing season. Then the seeds ripen. From each hectare of continuous sowing, you can collect up to 12 centners of planting material (it is better to do this in September). It is sown for fodder and melliferous purposes.

    Sweet clover is widely distributed in the Central Russian strip, less common in the West Siberian regions. This wild weed can be seen in meadows, roadsides, steep coasts, rocky slopes, and even near the dwellings of the local population.

    The plant is nectariferous and does not emit pollen at all. Bees can collect about 0.5 milligrams of raw material from each flower, but due to the fact that the stems are densely covered with buds (on average, their number reaches 10 thousand), the honey properties of the grass are very high. It will be useful for you to read about the properties and characteristics of the use of clover honey.

    According to experts, the nectar productivity of clover is different and depends on the geographic and climatic conditions of a particular region. For example, in the Voronezh region it reaches 170 kg / ha, and in the Novosibirsk - 270 kg / ha.

    The highest attendance of the honey bee by insects was recorded at a temperature of + 25 ° C and air humidity at 60% (mainly from 13 to 17 hours).

    The white and yellow types of sweet clover tolerate drought, but in conditions of excessive heat, when the thermometer rises above + 30 ° C, the plant grows poorly and is characterized by worse melliferous qualities.

    Did you know? In ancient Rome, honey was regarded as a currency. A delicacy could pay for the goods and pay fines.


    A perennial plant is characterized by thick-growing upright stems up to 1 m high - they develop in the form of a bush with a lignified root part. The elongated foliage is opposite, it has a rich dark green color, smooth edges and a pointed tip.

    Preferred for hyssop are loamy sunny areas. This is an unpretentious grass that tolerates drought and harsh winters, in favorable conditions it can develop over 10 years. But excessive rainfall can destroy the plant.

    Hyssop bloom begins in the second half of summer and lasts until the beginning of autumn. Buds with a labial structure come in blue, purple, purple, scarlet, white and blue petals. They form spike-like inflorescences that open gradually.

    For beekeeping, hyssop is valuable as a source of nectar and pollen, which insects collect mainly in the morning. From each hectare of sown area, bribes within 120-150 kg are possible. It is characteristic that every year the plant’s honey production increases.

    Did you know? The word "honey" of Jewish origin and literally means "one that is endowed with enchantment."


    Culture represents the Bean family, it is annual and perennial. Recognizable by its bushy shape, dissected by three- or five-lobed foliage, moth flowers of pink, white or red, purple.

    This grass is one of the most important feeds in agriculture, as well as the leading honey plant. It releases pollen and nectar in large quantities.

    Mass blooming of clover begins in June and lasts for one month. Intensive honey collection is promoted by a temperature in the range of + 24 ... + 28 ° С, as well as humidity at the level of 60%. Under such conditions, bees can collect about 140-200 kg of raw material from each hectare of clover field.

    A feature of the culture is that each bush forms from 50 to 90 bright beautiful flowers that attract from the vicinity of pollinating insects.


    This plant in folk medicine is known for its many medicinal properties, but in the territory of the Russian Federation it is not registered as a medicinal one.

    Perennial grass develops to a height of 2 m and is distinguished by long brownish-bluish leaves reaching 10 cm in length, thick branches, bushy form, long flowering. We advise you to read what a bee apiary is. The first lilac and white buds on the stems open with the advent of summer and wilt after about 3 months. In their place, small grains of dark color ripen.

    Nectar productivity of the plant is very high, due to its ability to secrete a sugary liquid substance throughout the day, regardless of weather conditions. The bee bribe from the Lofant field is 550 kg / ha.

    Such honey is characterized by high-grade signs and possesses general strengthening, immunostimulating qualities. Grass is specially sown on fertile light soils.

    Ball-headed muzzle

    Представляет собой многолетний куст высотой до 2 м с одиночными пряморастущими ворсистыми стеблями, длинной перистой листвой, шаровидными соцветиями, состоящими из трубчатых бутонов.

    Цветёт мордовник в начале лета белыми или голубыми цветами, а его плодоношение начинается ближе к середине лета. Тогда из цветоносов созревают чашеобразные семянки.

    Трава распространена в РФ, Украине, Средней Азии и на Кавказе. Чаще её можно увидеть в луговых и степных зонах. Во многих странах её культивируют как лекарственное сырьё и выдающийся медонос. Important! При покупке мёда учитывайте, что чаще подделывают светлые сорта . Мордовник шароголовый интенсивно выделяет нектар, часто заливая им все соцветия, а также даёт белёсую пыльцу. Активная посещаемость растения пчёлами наблюдается в солнечную тёплую погоду. В таких условиях возможен взяток в пределах 1050 кг/га. Полученный мёд характеризуется лечебными свойствами, а также слабым ароматом, отменным вкусом, прозрачностью и бесцветностью.


    Речь идёт об однолетнике с пряморастущими стеблями высотой до одного метра, густыми боковыми ответвлениями, перистыми листьями и лилово-голубыми миниатюрными цветками колоколообразной формы. Соцветия состоят примерно из 5–10 бутонов.

    В уходе трава неприхотлива, хорошо адаптируется к любым субстратам, не чувствительна к болезням и вредителям. Полезно ознакомиться с советами для начинающих пчеловодов. Цветение фацелии начинается через полтора месяца после посева и длится около 45–50 дней.

    Для усиленного медосбора опытные пчеловоды высевают растение в несколько этапов, что в один сезон позволяет обеспечить насекомым до 4 цветоносных периодов.

    Соцветия этой культуры характеризуются высокой мёдопродуктивностью: каждый цветок на протяжении суток выделяет до 5 мг нектара. В итоге пчёлы с гектара фацелиевого поля могут собрать около 650 кг сырья.

    Поскольку цветение фацелии длится весь световой день, эксперты считают её лидером среди травянистых медоносов.


    Это роскошное медленно растущее дерево высотой до 30 м с тёмной корой, густыми ветками, сердцевидными листьями и ароматными соцветиями.

    Культура интенсивно развивает крону до 80 лет, а продолжительность её развития составляет не более 120 лет. Цветение начинается со второй половины июня и длится на протяжении 2 недель (в северных регионах липовые цветы появляются в последней декаде июля).

    Ботаники выделяют разные виды лип, что отличаются размерами листвы и особенностями цветоносов. На территории РФ чаще встречаются мелко- и крупнолистые, амурские, маньчжурские разновидности. Читайте также о правилах разведения пчёл в населённых пунктах. Особенностью растения является повышенная требовательность к грунтам и условиям выращивания. Лучше всего эти деревья развиваются в лесных зонах на подзолистой, суглинистой, песчаной или супесчаной почве. Также они не переносят засухи и чрезмерной влаги.

    По оценкам экспертов, липа относится к лидерам нектароносных культур, но не даёт пыльцы. С каждого гектара липового леса пчёлы до заката солнца могут собрать около 1200 кг сырья. Это обозначает, что одно дерево обеспечивает взяток, который равен 10 кг. При изобилии древостоя пчелосемья собирает до 60 кг мёда.

    Как лучше посеять медоносы?

    Тот, кто не первый год занимается разведением пчёл, знает, какое из этих, перечисленных выше, медоносных растений характеризуется лучшей эффективностью для конкретного региона. Чтобы не ошибиться новичкам, нужно составить специальный календарь, планируя его так, чтобы посевы цвели непрестанно.

    Для того чтобы обеспечить пасеку стабильным снабжением нектара, требуются большие участки. Соответственно, мелкие землевладельцы обсаживают пасеку нектароносными деревьями и кустами, что позволяет поддержать рабочий настрой в ульях на протяжении всего сезона.

    Важно создать вокруг ульев медоносную среду из основных источников нектара: донника, липы, синюхи, фацелии. Желательно, чтобы эти культуры находились в радиусе не более 1, 5 км. Интересно почитать о сроках и способах осенней подкормки пчёл.

    Опытные хозяева советуют высевать двулетники под покров однолетних трав: например, донник под люцерну, синяк под фацелию.

    Медоносы с более поздними сроками вегетации рекомендовано культивировать для сбора семенного материала. А для продления периода бутонизации нужно скашивать часть травяных посевов до середины июня.

    Между ульями приветствуются нектароносные сорняки и декоративные культуры — медуница, пустырник, одуванчик, дербенник, мята, мелисса.

    Стоит ли высевать специальные растения на своём участке или проще вывезти улья на медоносные поля и лужайки, решать вам. Главное, чтобы пчелосемьи были на протяжении всего сезона обеспечены возможностью доступа к нектару и пыльце.

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