The best beehive options
A personal apiary is a great idea for gardeners or residents of the countryside. This type of occupation will not only serve as a supplier of sweets, but also allow you to earn a little money. How to choose clues for bees, as well as what nuances exist in this matter, will be discussed later.
Types of hives and their purpose
The modern beekeeper is lucky: he can choose a hive to his taste. Today, there are many varieties of bee houses on the market. They differ in the type of construction, materials, volume and purpose. It is a suitable hive that ensures the normal life of striped workers.
By design, bee houses are divided into:
Modern evidence has a collapsible structure. Previously, in collapsible beehives, honeycombs were mounted on rulers, but over time, such designs were replaced by framework ones. In one such house, several frames with honeycombs can fit, and their number can be freely changed.
Important! The modern beekeepers practically do not use a complete version, since working with it is extremely inconvenient.
In the direction of the evidence is divided into:
- Horizontal (lying). They have one case, which extends in two directions. The number of frames changes easily, but the design is too heavy and bulky.
- Vertical (standing). The volume of such houses can be changed by adding upper tiers. This design is characterized by mobility and lightness.
- Combined. Combine the best qualities of horizontal and standing hives. This design provides for several sections separated by a partition. Such a system allows you to change the volume in any direction.
Both lying and vertical houses have several modifications that differ in their characteristics. Distinguish evidence and purpose. For example, some are used not for the normal life of bees, but for other functions:
- Experimental research, etc. As a rule, non-standard hives have glass walls and a closing shield.
- Wintering of queens. The frame in such a house is greatly reduced, which allows the formation of small families that will fertilize the uterus.
- Honey honey production. Small frames with light, firmly sealed cells are used.
Important! When leaving in such structures, there is no need to rearrange heavy extensions. And the impressive size of the case allows it to be well insulated for the winter period.
What are the criteria for choosing a hive?
When choosing a house for bees, the following points should be considered:
- Terrain. If your region does not have a high honey potential, then it is advisable to choose a single-hull design. And for a place with stable high rates, it is better to take sun loungers or double-handed evidence.
- Climate and external circumstances. If spring and autumn frosts are a common thing in the region, it is better to acquire double-walled hives. Then they can be left for the winter on the street.
- Characteristics of the apiary. If it is nomadic, then it is better to take a lightweight design, and for stationary it is possible to use heavy models.
TOP 4 best beehives for beginner beekeepers
There are many design options, so the beekeeper himself can choose which bee dwelling is best suited to his needs. Typical models are created on the basis of a common design, but taking into account innovative modifications.
According to many beekeepers, this is the most convenient hive. Such designs can consist of 16 frames (reclining beds) and 20-24 frames. During the development of the family, the nest can be expanded by horizontal placement of the honeycombs on the side. The volume of the nest is regulated by a boundary board. In spring and winter, in such a construction, two families can be kept, isolated by a partition and have separate letoks. In the front wall of the case there are two slots - bottom and top. The bottom of the evidence is fixed. The edge of the bottom serves as the arrival board for insects.
In addition to the main parts, the design contains:
- removable boards;
- roof with vents.
Did you know? The bear got its name thanks to the sweet bee product. It was believed that he "knows honey."
- Advantages of sunbeds:
- the ability of the family to increase strength in the medical collection;
- no need to rearrange the case;
- free access to the framework and ease of monitoring the condition and life of the family;
- swarming reduction;
- the possibility of increasing the number of cells on the wax;
- layering can be done right in the hive;
- in winter, two families can be supported, including those with worms.
- Sunbeds also have disadvantages:
- the framework is small in height, as in the Dadan design, and the setting of a store extension significantly complicates maintenance;
- spring development proceeds somewhat worse than in the narrow ones.
Single-walled house with standard frames 435 × 230 mm. Consists of the following parts:
- three or more identical enclosures, each containing 10 frames;
- removable bottom;
- the apron.
- The advantages of multi-case evidence are that:
- it can be used in all beekeeping methods;
- winter nests are easy to assemble;
- wax frames are quickly rebuilt;
- It is easy to pack families when transported.
- The disadvantages of this design include:
- inadequate ventilation;
- complex work with buildings with high-intensity beekeeping technology;
- lack of free space, due to which it is necessary to remove part of the framework, which creates additional stress for bees;
- when growing two families, difficulties arise;
- it is impossible to control the building frame and preparing the family for swarming.
Learn how to make a multi-hive beehive with your own hands.
The main secret of the demand for such homes is low cost. A minimum of material for production allows beginners to quickly get used to the apiary business and only then move on to difficult designs.
- The main advantages of polystyrene foam evidence:
- thermal insulation properties;
- ease of home, even with multi-tiered assembly;
- no susceptibility to rotting, the appearance of fungi and mold;
- internal fixtures are easy to change.
- The disadvantages include the need:
- auxiliary fixation;
- tool changes every 3-4 years.
Important! Expanded polystyrene evidence should not be placed in the sun, since expanded polystyrene is unstable to sunlight. In direct sunlight, the hive can become deformed and the bees will look for a more practical home.
Extremely simple beehive, consisting of several square cases 30 cm wide, mounted on top of each other. Usually, two hulls are left for the winter, and two more are added to them in the summer. There is no framework inside them, as in the natural habitats of bees. Rectangular slats are attached to the two opposite walls with nails, on which the bees will build honeycombs.
Did you know? In folk medicine, not only beeswax is widely used, but also zabrus - honeycomb caps. This product enhances immunity, cleanses the skin, and helps overcome the flu and the common cold.
Beginner Beekeeper Tips
Experienced beekeepers give these recommendations to beginners:
- Keep only strong families - they tolerate wintering well and get less sick. Weak individuals need to be discarded on time.
- A family should always have a supply of honey. If there is less than 4-6 kg of food in the bins, the uterus will stop worming, and the bees will throw out the baby. It is not advisable to pump out the May fee if supportive bribes are expected.
- It is possible to strengthen the family - for this, add 1-2 frames of the brood at the exit. You can also swap a strong and weak family. Previously, frames with bees are sprayed with water with mint drops, and the queens are covered overnight.
- Expand the nests in a timely manner. If most cells are occupied, the uterus searches for free places and travels long distances per day. However, she loses up to 600 eggs per day.
- The distance to the apiary. Its maximum should be 800–1000 m. From a long distance (3 km or more), the bees bring only part of the nectar (about 1/3).
- Check the swarm. The rule of the seventh frame will help to control this process: as soon as 7 frames are filled, the family is ready for digging. To avoid this, from such families make layering.
- During the winter, the home should have good ventilation. Otherwise, dampness forms, which negatively affects the condition of the bees.
- By the end of wintering, the condition of the family is checked once every 10-14 days. If the club got to the back wall, then the feed ends, so you need to do additional dressing.
- It is better to organize a wintering on the reduced nests, leaving only the offended frame. 1.8–2.0 kg of feed is left in each street. It is advisable to leave more honey.