The basic rules for fertilizing cucumbers with manure
High yields of cucumbers are harvested from fertile plots. And since any soil is depleted, fertilizers must be added to it. In the article you will find information about when and how to properly feed cucumbers with manure in the open ground, as well as how to properly prepare top dressing.
Is it possible to feed cucumbers with fresh manure?
Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) belong to the pumpkin family. Regardless of the variety, they respond well to the application of organic fertilizers, including manure.
This substance is a waste of domestic animals:
- cattle and small cattle;
- other farm animals and poultry.
Horse manure forms the loosest soil structure, due to the fact that its decomposition temperature is + 80 ° C. Useful substances from it are released faster than from other species due to accelerated decay. Horse manure extract is considered the richest in chemical composition. It is used if you need to create a thermal cushion under the plants. Dilute it with water in a ratio of 1:10. The application rate is 5-6 kg / m².
Cow dung is considered poorer than horse manure. It has more water. But it is more acceptable for cucumbers. It should be diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 or less and left to insist. The application rate is 10 l / m². In its properties, it is similar to horse manure.
Did you know? Cucumbers began to grow about 6, 000 years ago in India and Mesopotamia. According to Indian legend, there are 6, 000 seeds in each cucumber. Their number is equal to the number of Raja children, thanks to whom these vegetables appeared.
Bird droppings are a very effective fertilizer. It has a lot of nitrogen, and also contains calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in an easily digestible form. It will affect the soil for several years, as it decomposes for a long time. But if you go too far with its dosage, then you can burn the plants. The advantages of bird droppings are the destruction of mold in the soil and reducing the number of weeds. It is believed that its use can increase productivity by 20–40%.
Manure is not used fresh, as it may contain weed seeds and pathogenic microorganisms. As a fertilizer, it is used only after it has matured for at least 6 months.
Features of feeding cucumbers with manure
The composition of manure contains: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other substances. For plants, three of them are especially significant: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium:
- Nitrogen is needed to produce proteins, build green mass . But its excess causes the ovaries to fall, and the deficiency manifests itself in the form of thin vines and small leaves.
- Phosphorus is necessary for the development of the root system . Its main feature is slow assimilation. Therefore, of the substance introduced into the soil this year, the plant uses only 15%. Phosphorus is necessarily introduced annually and the more years it is introduced, the more saturated soil you get.
- Potassium is required for metabolic processes . It provides plants with resistance to disease.
The content of the main trace elements in manure (in% relative to the total weight of the fertilizer):
Features of making nutrients:
- Cucumbers need very little nitrogen . Their leaf mass is not too large. But you need a lot of potassium and phosphorus.
- Sandy soils lose nutrients much faster, so plants on such soils are fertilized more often.
- Be sure to add organic matter to the soil before planting cucumbers in order to provide good conditions for the gradual development of plants.
- More manure should be used in the first year, and less in subsequent years. This is because organic substances improve the quality of the soil and some of them act for several years.
Important! Adding manure to the soil increases its aeration. The better the ventilation of the soil, the more intensively it absorbs water and nutrients.
It is believed that well-aged compost will be a better source of nutrients for cucumbers than manure. It contains only 2% nitrogen. And it does not cause active vegetation, but enriches the soil. Whatever type of fertilizer you choose, be sure to read the instructions on the label and apply them in accordance with the stage of plant development.
Varieties of fertilizers
Plant nutrition are:
The difference between them is that they "contact the cucumbers" in different ways. Organics are released slowly, giving up beneficial elements as plants need. This is good for gradual growth. In addition, the composition includes not only 3 basic elements, but also others: sulfur, magnesium, iron, calcium. Inorganic substances are divided into 3 groups: phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. Most often, only 1 or 2 microelements are present in the composition of fertilizers. They will be released quickly, which is useful if you need to urgently feed the cucumbers.
As for manure, the main feature of the fertilizer used is that only manure from herbivores is used on the beds. Do not use the waste products of predators. Together with meat, they can consume helminths. Such fertilizer can be dangerous.
Fertilizer rules for cucumbers
When preparing the site for planting, 10-15 tons / ha of rotted manure and 400 kg / ha of superphosphate are introduced into the soil. If the site is with acidified soil, then it is deoxidized by applying lime in the fall or a month before transplanting seedlings. Did you know? Organics are poorly absorbed if the soil is not warmed up and soil microorganisms are inactive. In this case, inorganic fertilizers will act on plants faster. Manure is not recommended for spreading on the ground. During irrigation, drops of contaminated water will fall on the cucumbers, creating a risk of infection with Escherichia coli for people. Try to add organic matter by mixing with the soil when planting. Fertilizers will be applied: during growth, flowering, fruit formation and fruiting.
If cucumbers do not develop well, they add 0.1% of nitrogen fertilizers (10 g / 10 liters of water). Such top dressing is introduced in phase 2 of full leaves. After 10 days, it is repeated. In the phase of 3-5 leaves add fertilizer for leaf mass. This will help seedlings to develop, strengthen leaves and roots.
How to breed manure for feeding cucumbers
The liquid form of fertilizer provides fast absorption of nutrients. Apply it before fruiting to ensure the formation of ovaries. For manure, the breeding method depends on the type of substance:
- cattle manure is bred - a liter jar of dry matter in 10 liters of water;
- chicken droppings are more concentrated, it will need 0.5 liters per 10 liters of water; the mixture is insisted for a week, and then the plants are fed, after diluting the nutrient with another 10 liters of oxen.
How to grow cucumbers, feeding calendar
- in the flowering phase or before it begins;
- during the formation of small fruits;
- in the phase of active fruiting.
In total, you need to carry out 4 dressings. Between each two of them there should be at least two and no more than four weeks.
Read also articles on this topic:
Feeding cucumber seedlings
Seedling top dressing begins when 2 true leaves appear on plants. The danger of introducing mullein at this stage is that it increases the temperature of the soil and this can cause the root system to burn out. Therefore, most gardeners prefer to apply inorganic, safer fertilizers.
Video: Topping cucumber seedlings
It can be a solution of:
- 15 g of ammonium nitrate;
- 40 g of superphosphate;
- 15 g of potassium sulfate;
- 10 liters of water.
2 weeks after the first top dressing make the second. If you decide to carry out feeding with mullein, then keep in mind that the concentration of the solution for seedlings should be 2-3 times less than for adult plants.
Important! Cucumbers react negatively to the presence of chlorine. Therefore, the water used for breeding fertilizers must be defended for a day or use filtered.
Top dressing after landing in open ground
Calendar and feeding technology:
- at the beginning of flowering, it is necessary to feed; You can add 1 teaspoon of urea and 1 teaspoon of superphosphate to the manure solution; but if organic fertilizers are applied during planting, then this is not necessary.
- during the formation of the fruit, another feeding is carried out; at this time, you can add 1 cup of ash to the solution.
- 2 weeks after the second feeding, a third is carried out, with the same components as the first; spread rate - 8 l / m²;
- and after 2 weeks - the last.
Special types of top dressing
Knowledge of the chemical composition of fertilizers has enriched agriculture relatively recently. And before that, the understanding of the benefits of certain substances was based on observations. Therefore, there were many folk ways of feeding cucumbers.
Top dressing for the active growth of cucumbers
As a result of decomposition of manure mixed with soil, a mixture is formed, which is called humus or humus. This substance is also useful, like manure. It makes the soil nutritious and loose. Humus is introduced in the spring at the rate of 4–5 kg of fertilizer per 1 m² of soil. It is mixed with the earth when beds are formed.
If organic fertilizers are “populated” with earthworms, they process organic matter and produce biohumus. The first to invent this fertilizer in the United States using red California worms. Efficiency of vermicompost is 5-8 times higher than manure. Biohumus for feeding is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:20 and defend for several days. This is necessary because the worms process fresh organics, and it is quite toxic to plants.
Wood ash is a natural source of potassium. In addition to the fact that it can serve as top dressing, its use helps in pest control. Ashes sprinkled aisles.
Important! Cow dung contains the least amount of nitrogen. It is easier to obtain, and it is less likely to burn plants or leave you without a crop.
Other useful top dressings:
- Yeast fungi induce increased flowering . Mix 3 tbsp. tablespoons of yeast with 10 liters. water and spray the plants as soon as flowers appear. This will attract pollinating insects.
- Onion peeling plants and protects them from pests . A broth of onion husks is sprayed after the beginning of fruiting. To obtain a solution, a handful of husks are boiled in 1.5 liters of water for 5 minutes, cooled, brought with clean water to 5 liters and sprayed.
- The use of "folk" means does not replace the main feeding, but can supplement them, improving the condition of plants.
How to feed cucumbers to form a bush
Shrub cucumbers are compact and poorly climbing. They take up extremely little space and are recommended for cultivation in small areas. When planting bush forms, manure or compost is added to the plot - at the rate of 8–10 kg / m². You can add 80 g of superphosphate per 1 m². Such cucumbers well perceive top dressing from bird droppings or mullein diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 8 and 1:20, respectively. It is advisable to let the solution brew before feeding them plants. Read also how to feed cucumbers for growth and increase yield. Proper application of fertilizers will ensure good growth of cucumbers, and hence good yield. Use them taking into account the dosage recommendations and do not forget to use personal protective equipment for agricultural activities with fertilizers.