Bacterial grape cancer: signs and methods of treatment
Among the diseases from which the vineyard can suffer, bacterial cancer should be highlighted, which will be discussed in more detail in this article. The disease is not very common, but can lead to significant damage and death of the vine.
Signs of bacterial grape cancer
All parts of the grape bush may be affected by this disease. When bacteria get into favorable conditions, they begin to vegetatively multiply and gradually spread throughout the body of the plant, infecting even the soil where it grows. This explains the fact that bacterial grape cancer is a serious disease.
The causative agent is a wound parasite, which affects all organs of the plant, due to the fact that bacteria travel through the conducting system. Tumors occur in places of mechanical damage to the bush.
A characteristic feature of the disease is that it can pass secretly, without showing external signs for a long time, which ensures its wide distribution. Unaware of the presence of the disease, winegrowers can plant or sell infected cuttings, which can lead to the death of large areas of vineyards.
Critical for them are indicators:
- above +45 ... + 55 ° С;
- below -32 ° C.
The development of bacterial cancer is promoted by:
- weather conditions such as hail, resulting in a lot of damage to the vine;
- winter frosts, if the vine is not well covered for wintering;
- night frosts in late spring;
- damage to the vine by rodents;
- excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers.
Pathogens can persist in the soil for several years, remaining in the remains of the roots and vines. Almost all grape varieties around the world are affected, but no effective way to eradicate the disease has yet been found, so the main task of gardeners is the preventive measures taken.
Important! After removal of the diseased plant, the land should rest for at least 3-5 years, after which grapes and other crops can be planted on it, observing crop rotation.
A grape bush infected with bacterial cancer has both external signs of the disease and other signs that affect the process of development and vital activity of the plant.
The appearance of the disease
Externally, the manifestation of the disease can become noticeable in the presence of optimal conditions, even if the plant has been sick for several years. The presence of the disease can be determined by the following symptom - the appearance of a tumor-like growth, often near the root neck, close to the root of the vine.
The disease is more common in perennials, but it can be in seedlings, and on young vines. Initially, a small white tumor the size of a grain of wheat appears under the bark. It has a loose and soft structure. Perhaps the appearance of not single tumors, but a whole group.
This happens with the beginning of the growing season. Over time, it increases significantly in size and breaks the surface of the cortex, protruding outward. At the same time, at the cellular level, the entire structure of the plant is damaged, even its DNA, which leads to infection of all its parts and to receive unhealthy seedlings from a diseased vine.
The tumor can have a color from yellow to brown, black growths are also found. The surface of the formation is hilly, has no clear contours. In diameter, it can reach 30 cm.
In the cold season, the tumor may deform, crack under the influence of low temperatures. Affected areas can combine to form massive growths.
Important! After treating a diseased plant, the garden tool must be disinfected, since bacterial cancer can rapidly infect other plants in the area.
Bacterial cancer can occur:
- a change in the appearance of the leaves, bright spots appear on them, wilting of the edges and the formation of a yellow border are noted;
- the plant becomes weak;
- diseased seedlings poorly take root and grow, have poor vine development;
- affected seeds may not sprout, and their seedlings are very weak and often die.
In addition to the appearance of tumor-like formations, bacterial grape cancer can manifest itself as follows:
- the vine loses its resistance to frost and dry weather;
- foliage quickly dries and falls, before its traditional time;
- weak state of the plant;
- changes in the taste of the crop for no apparent reason;
- infected vine gives a significantly lower yield;
- clusters may not ripen on infected vines, and berries lose their elasticity, wither and wrinkle.
Did you know? Ampelotherapy is a field of medicine that is based on the use of grape berries, leaves and vines as the main component of medical preparations.
Causes of occurrence
The disease can occur for several reasons, among which the main ones are:
- contact with an infected plant, water or soil;
- the presence of injuries to the plant from exposure to weather conditions, animals;
- human activities - improper care of the plant;
- reproduction of diseased seedlings, their collective soaking before vaccination, which can lead to the spread of the disease from one infected vine to a large number of others;
- the use of the same plot for growing grapes for a long time, which leads to the accumulation of bacteria and infections in the soil;
- a vine weakened by another disease requires treatment and care, as it may be susceptible to active bacteria of bacterial cancer.
Features of the treatment of bacterial grape cancer
How to fight and how to treat bacterial grape cancer, this question worries many wine growers who want to maintain their crops and get rid of a serious disease. It should be said that at the moment there is no such tool that would successfully cope with this ailment and guaranteed to eliminate it.
You can only reduce the influence of external factors and favorable conditions for development, improve care.
Treatment of the affected plant can be carried out using chemicals, antibiotics.
It will also be useful for you to learn how to care for grapes in spring and eliminate problems after winter, and how to care for grapes in summer so that you have a good harvest.
External neoplasms are treated with bactericidal agents in order to delay the growth of bacteria, however this method cannot affect the development of the disease inside the vine.
If the grapes are slightly infected, only growths can be seen on it at the initial stage of development, then they must be removed, cut with a garden tool and burned to prevent further spread of bacteria in the soil.
If the damage to the vine is more significant, it is necessary to get rid of the plot or the entire vine, possibly even cutting off its entire ground part. Sections are treated with a solution of copper sulfate 5%. If the bush is very badly damaged by bacterial cancer, then the best solution is to uproot it.
Conducting timely agricultural activities and proper care for a diseased plant can provide it with long life and fruiting. During the treatment of grape bushes, it is necessary to provide the plant with proper watering and the necessary fertilizing with fertilizers to increase vitality.
Important! In bacterial cancer, nitrogen fertilizers cannot be used, they are excluded for 2-3 years.
To treat and prevent the disease, antibiotic therapy can be used, substances that can fight bacteria. They have a local effect, preventing massive damage.
For this, it is recommended to use such drugs:
- “Fitolavin” - the composition includes an antibiotic substance isolated from the soil;
- "Fitoplasmin" is a complex of antibiotics obtained from soil components. The area of the infected surface decreases by almost 1.5 times with the use of this drug with a wide spectrum of action;
- “Fitoverm M” is a microflora regulator in the soil, it dissolves in water and is introduced along with watering;
- "Extrasol", "Gamair" - living bacteria that can provide protection against pathogenic organisms. They are populated in the root system.
Antibiotic treatment can prolong the life of the plant, and provide it with effective support and even stimulate the growth of the grape crop.
Regular prophylaxis and proper agricultural practices are the only effective remedy for bacterial grape cancer.
You need to know how to maintain the health of the vines, and what measures should be taken:
Did you know? In order to create an additional barrier and protect the vine from pests, it is recommended to plant parsley around the berry bushes. In addition, it will help improve the fruiting of the vine.
- prevent damage to the vine during its laying in the fall and preparation for wintering;
- carefully inspect the planting material when buying, it should have a healthy appearance. It is recommended to purchase seedlings and cuttings from trusted suppliers;
- carry out preventive irrigation with antifungal drugs that will help prevent weakening of the plant. For these purposes, you can use Bordeaux mixture, iodine solution, sulfur preparations;
- disinfection of all instruments after trimming the vine with alcohol 70%, sodium hypochlorite solution 10% or potassium permanganate solution 4 g / l;
- carry out the procedure of pre-planting bacterization of the base of cuttings and rhizomes of seedlings;
- soaking cuttings and seedlings for 30-60 minutes. in hot water at a temperature of +50 ... + 55 ° C. This procedure can damage the central kidneys, but at the same time the substitutes will remain and the bacteria that cause cancer will die;
- regular inspection of the vine bush for the presence of external symptoms of infection;
- if the plant died, then it must be burned to prevent bacteria from entering the soil and their further spread.
Scientific research of this issue was carried out in 103 varieties, as a result of which scientists distinguished 3 groups:
- resistant varieties, whose susceptibility was rated at 1 point. This group included 35 varieties;
- the damage score of 2 points received 27 varieties;
- a high activity for the formation of tumors with an assessment of 3 points was detected in 41 grape varieties.
If we talk about the first group, then we should say among them:
- most of them are intraspecific hybrids - 11.7%;
- interspecific hybrids - 7.8%;
- Black Sea varieties - 6.8%;
- eastern - 4.9%;
- Western European - 3.1%.
The most stable variety is called Delight.
- Agate Don;
- Grushevsky white;
- Donut Muscat;
Can sick grapes be eaten?
Grapes during the illness can bear fruit for a long time, and only when the volume of the crop is significantly reduced, it is recommended to deal with the removal of the bush.
Changes that may affect the quality of the grapes may occur:
- in changing the taste of berries;
- in their deformation, they may dry out a little and the skin becomes less elastic.
To get a crop from an unhealthy plant, you need to pay special attention to it, controlling its watering and fertilizing.