Appearance and features of Iranian pigeons

Iranian high-flying war pigeons are one of the oldest bird lines domesticated by man. The history of their derivation and the features of the content will be discussed in this material.

The story of the appearance of pigeons

The Persians were the first to domesticate the pigeons. These birds liked the ruler of the Persian Empire Sirius the Great. So pigeons began to be kept in the palace of the ruler and all the rich estates. Not any individual was honored to live at the palace. We selected only the most skilled, agile, who could climb to great heights and freely overcome long distances. The court poultry farmers were constantly engaged in breeding to improve and improve quality indicators.

Did you know? The dove's eye can process 75 pictures per second. For comparison: the human eye perceives only 24 pictures during this time.

The selection of the most hardy breeding individuals was carried out according to the results of pigeon competitions. The first mention of such competitions dates back to the VII century. BC e. The first they began to conduct poultry farmers Kashan. This method of selection quickly gained popularity not only for its intended purpose, but also as a pleasure sight. Competitions were held in the spring before the mating season in birds. 7–11 representatives took part in them.

At the present stage, hundreds of individuals are participating in Iranian competitions. In Iran, to this day, the maintenance of pigeons is considered the occupation of the elect, therefore only 5% of the country's farms breed birds. This is done in large settlements. The efforts of the breeders were not in vain. To date, many breeds have been bred with a variety of plumage colors, the shape of the body and skull.

Did you know? A dove is not able to lay eggs if it does not see its partner.

The main task of poultry farmers is to improve the quality of flight. The most common line of Iranian pigeons was due to the fact that through Persia lay a trade route from China to the Middle East. States actively maintained trade relations. Many people passed through Persia. No one could resist the temptation to attend bird competitions and then buy a beautiful flyer for themselves. So the birds spread around the world.

Appearance and features

There are no clear restrictions on the colors of the feather cover of Iranian pigeons, but they all have similar characteristics that are associated with the body structure:

  • elongated body - 34–36 cm;
  • the skull is narrowed oval or round, streamlined;
  • in most representatives, the plumage on the head is smooth, but some individuals are born with a crest in the occipital part;
  • the beak is elongated, can reach 2.5 cm;
  • wing 28-30 cm long, firmly pressed to the body, reaches 62 cm in scope;
  • tail feathers more than other pigeons - 12 pcs., and the tail itself is longer - about 13 cm;
  • legs are high, smooth, individuals with shortened legs covered with plumage are rarely found;
  • the skeleton is dense;
  • the muscles are highly developed, body reliefs are clearly marked;
  • the feathers fit snugly to the torso, which creates additional streamlining of the body during flight.

The main distinguishing feature of the representatives of the Iranian line is that they are all heady, ticklish. Variations in the color of plumage can be a mass. There are no specific colors defining this breed.

But representatives with the following type of plumage color are considered the most valuable:

  • plain;
  • with the same color of the head and paws;
  • white body and colored wings;
  • with colored rings around the neck;
  • plain body and color tail;
  • plain body and color head;
  • solid color body and snow-white head.
The color selection of breeding birds in Iran is observed only in the west. There, preference is given to snow-white individuals.

Important! Iranian thoroughbred pigeons do not change the color of the feather cover with age and with molting, in contrast to representatives of other breeds.

Flight qualities of the breed

The variety under consideration belongs to the martial. This does not mean that the birds are fighting among themselves, but characterizes the type of flight. When the wings move, a sound resembling clicks is produced. A characteristic sound is heard even when the bird is so high that it is not visible to the eye. The average duration of the flight of Iranian pigeons is 10 hours.

This ability is one of the defining qualities of a bird. If the pigeon cannot spend more than 3 hours in flight, it is rejected. The flight style is slow, but the pigeon gains the necessary height in a short time. One of the features of these birds is the ability for a long time to fix themselves in flight in one place.

Differences from other species

It differs from other types of Iranian pigeons:

  • tail length and density;
  • body structure - it has a more streamlined shape;
  • clearly visible muscle reliefs;
  • flight altitude;
  • the use of various techniques during the flight;
  • ability to spend in the air for up to 12 hours in a row;
  • reproduction of click sounds during flight.

Did you know? On the body of one adult pigeon is 10 thousand feathers.


There are several subspecies of Iranian pigeons (togas):

  • Tehran high-flying;
  • Hamadan battle cosmos;
  • Tiberian.

Tehran high-flying

Relate to the most popular in Iran. This is due to the fact that representatives of the species are more reminiscent of the flight characteristics and body structure of hawks. The wingspan of such a bird can reach 70 cm. It differs from its other Iranian relatives by a shortened beak and a rounded skull. The plumage color can be very different.

Hamadan battle cosmos

Bred in the northwestern region of the country, therefore, individuals with white plumage predominate in this subspecies. The main difference is the presence of long, up to 20 cm, feathers on the legs. The length of the beak can be different. There are individuals with and without crest.

Tibriz pigeons

This subspecies is a direct descendant of Baku pigeons. Their skull is elongated, and the body is elongated. Tibriz pigeons received the greatest distribution on the western lands of the country.

Features of pasture and selection

Iranian pigeons are not used to flying in a flock. They keep apart. The first criterion by which birds are selected is gon. Birds should spend freely in flight from 4 to 8 hours. This is an average indicator that can be increased up to 12 hours in young birds, while ensuring a full diet and constant training.

When selecting birds after pasturing, pay attention to the following criteria:

  • ability to return home;
  • after summer, the bird should land at the same place.

A special role is played by the behavior of pigeons during hawk attacks. They should not panic, otherwise they can become easy prey. Another selection criterion is bird health. They must be vaccinated and resistant to disease in order to pass on these beneficial qualities in the future to offspring.

Did you know? Pigeons form families in which relationships are usually maintained until the death of partners. However, in urban conditions, doves often abandon males with their offspring, and, notably, the dove does not go for a companion, but remains to feed the chicks and does it quite successfully.

Bird fight

Depending on the type of click issued by the bird in flight, several types of combat are distinguished:

  1. Corkscrew - the bird rises vertically, circling around its axis. Pigeons using this type of flight are expelled only 2 times a week, because it requires quite a lot of energy from the bird.
  2. Pillar - the height is gained at high speed vertically with the cutting of small circles. At the right height, the bird begins to play, tumbling over its head. The decline is just as rapid, with the description of the circles. The process ends with taking up the initial positions.
  3. Butterfly - The bird emits strong clicks, often flapping its wings.

Conditions of detention

To breed pigeons, you will definitely need to construct a full-fledged house. Such a construction should be installed away from cesspools, stockyard and other houses. In the territory where the dovecote is located, there should not be tall buildings, power lines and trees that are too tall. The dovecote is an aviary and patio for walking. The size of the enclosure is determined by the number of individuals. The steam should have at least 50 cm³.

To the parameters of the density of planting, you also need to add the area for the installation of nests, feeders and drinking bowls. The height of the house should be 2 m. The walking yard is completely similar in size to the house, but it is simply a territory fenced with a grid on the sides and top, with a floor lined with plywood. In the house, the air temperature in the summer period should be maintained within + 20 ° С, in winter it should not fall below + 5 ° С.

Did you know? Pigeons nod their heads while walking in order to “sharpen”. Thus, they improve the visibility of the perceived image.

There is no need to install a heating system, but before cooling it is necessary to take care of wall insulation. There must be basic ventilation in the house. These may be small dormer windows. The flooring is made of wood. The surface of the floor must be lined with hay or straw. The litter is changed as it becomes soiled.

The more often the house will be cleaned, the higher will be the immunity in birds. Perches in the pigeon do, focusing on the number of birds. Perches are smooth wooden bars with a cross section of 4 cm. Perches are fixed on the walls horizontally, so that there is a distance of more than 50 cm from the floor and ceiling.

Nests are made with the following parameters:

  • length - 80 cm;
  • height - 30 cm;
  • width - 40 cm.

For each family you need to make a separate nest. Females prefer to equip the nests themselves, so the task of the poultry breeder is to build a box and leave soft hay, branches, and fluff in it. You need to install them in the most quiet, secluded corner. Feeders are equipped separately for young animals and for adults. It can be ordinary wooden or plastic drawers or bunker models containing a large amount of feed. Drinking bowls are best done with drip nipple feed. For hygienic procedures, pigeons need to install a couple of boxes of sand mixed with wood ash. In these containers, birds take baths, cleaning feathers and getting rid of pests.

Important! Breadcrumbs swell in pigeons in the goiter and are poorly digested, therefore, it is better to exclude these products from their diet.


In caring for Iranian pigeons, diet plays an important role. Birds need a balanced diet to form a beautiful silhouette and gain muscle mass. The basis of the diet should be cereals.

Approximate ratio:

  • 5 parts of barley;
  • 3 parts of wheat;
  • 1 part of millet;
  • 1 part of a mixture of legumes, rapeseed, oats.

In the summer, greens are added to the grain:

  • nettles;
  • spinach;
  • cabbage and beetroot leaves;
  • salad;
  • clover;
  • alfalfa.
In the summer, feeding is carried out 2 times a day, since birds can get their own food. In winter, they do not have such an opportunity, so they switch to a three-time feeding regimen.

You will be interested to know how much on average live and outdoor pigeons live.

Daily feed rate for 1 individual, depending on age characteristics:

  • young growth - 30–40 g;
  • adult individuals before molting - 50 g;
  • during the mating season and during oviposition - 60 g;
  • during the competition - 60–70 g + rice or sugar to restore carbohydrate balance.

As therapeutic additives in the pigeon, you can decompose the salty bars enriched with iodine and other useful minerals. In addition, meat and bone meal is periodically added to food. Iranian breed of pigeons is one of the oldest lines, the most common around the world. These birds are attractive to pigeon breeders for their high flight performance.

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