Antibiotics for cattle: value, dosage and application
The main task of each farmer is to take care of animal health, because it is on this criterion that the level of efficiency of the farm, and profit, and even pleasure from work, depend. In this article, we will talk about antibiotics for cattle - a medicine that every breeder turns to for help sooner or later, because without the use of these funds it is simply impossible to cure some diseases. We will also tell you how to give an antibiotic to calves, young animals, adult cattle and cows after calving.
The importance of antibiotics for cattle
Antibiotics are drugs widely used in veterinary medicine to eliminate diseases of various spectra. Their significance for livestock is as follows:
- elimination of various infections in the body of cattle, as well as the fight against diseases;
- biologically active substances can serve as an additional type of feed for livestock, and this, accordingly, reduces the costs that need to be spent on feed. In this case, the drugs are used in small doses. With their help, the immunity of the animal increases, the death rate decreases, so that the farmer can bring his farm to a new positive level of activity;
- drugs can increase the metabolism of the animal, which is beneficially reflected not only in the increase in body weight, but also contributes to the increase in the final quantity of farm products. This ability of veterinary drugs helps to avoid losses in animal husbandry.
Important! You can not interrupt the treatment of cows or other animals with an antibiotic when they see the improvement in the health of their wards. The course must be brought to an end so as not to provoke a relapse.
Let us consider in more detail the main antibiotic complexes, the purpose of their use in the process of raising cattle, and also how to properly give them to calves.
This complex is used to improve metabolism in the animal’s body, activate the body’s resistance, and increase feed utilization. Thanks to this, the growth and development of cows and calves is accelerated. The immunity of animals is strengthened, which helps to reduce the incidence.
Important! Despite the positive effect, part of the drug can be ingested in meat and milk; therefore, it is forbidden to use this complex for feeding pregnant cows, cows after calving, as well as small calves. Also, one day before the slaughter of cattle, it is strictly recommended to exclude food containing these funds from the animal's diet. Veterinarians recommend using drugs that are not related to medicines, for example, Grisin, Bacitracin, as a top dressing. These drugs can be given even to cows after calving or calves, starting from the 10th day after birth. So, to increase the amount of milk to cows, it is recommended to give 80 g of Bacitracin or 10 g of Grisin per 1 ton of feed, it is worthwhile to reduce the dose by half to the bulls that are fed.
- 5-10 days - 5 g of the drug in food;
- 11-30 days - 6 g;
- 31-60 days — 8 g;
- 61–120 days - 10 g.
To stimulate growth
Accelerating growth in order to make a quick profit is one of the main tasks that the breeder sets himself. At the same time, the quality of the resulting meat products must comply with all the required standards. The organization of proper care for the calf from the first days of his birth will help to achieve this goal. Young growth should receive the right amount of vitamins, trace elements that will help direct its development in the right direction and add the desired growth rate.
For the treatment of diseases
The main purpose of antibiotic drugs in animal husbandry is the treatment of cattle diseases.
A lot of trouble and trouble for both the cow and its owner brings the disease with mastitis. The disease affects the udder of the cow and can change its structure: it provokes the compaction of breast tissue.
Read more on how to treat mastitis in a cow.
Outwardly, this is expressed by swelling of the nipples, the udder and affected areas turn red. The animal has a fever, it feels severe pain. The cause of this disease is staphylococcal infection.
Important! Milk from a patient with mastitis should be disposed of; they should never drink a calf or sell it.
To make an accurate diagnosis, a milk analysis is done and antibiotic treatment is prescribed, which include Ampicillin, Cloxacillin. The cow is given an injection: the medicine is injected into the focus of the disease, that is, into the area of the mammary gland that is affected by the disease. An injection should be done every 8 hours, and with the advanced form of the disease - every 5 hours.
Cows during lactation are injected with Exid, Ceftonite. These are new drugs that are quickly excreted from milk.
A dangerous disease of cattle is leptospirosis, the bacteria of which carry rodents. The disease is accompanied by fever, intoxication of the body, damage to the internal organs of the animal (in particular, the liver). May result in death.
Streptomycin also helps to eliminate leptospirosis: it is administered intramuscularly. The dose is 10-12 units of medicine / 1 kg of body weight. The frequency of injections is every 12 hours. The course of treatment is 4–5 days.
Did you know? There are various forms of antibiotic drugs: tablets, injections, ointments, sprays. Despite the form in which the drug enters the body, it quickly penetrates the bloodstream and is transported to all organs.
This disease relates to chronic infectious diseases of humans and animals.
Treatment of the disease without antibiotics is not possible. An effective tool is oxytetracycline (at a dose of 400 units for adult cattle, calves who are not yet a year old, reduce the dose by 2 times).
You can also use Polymyxin: 900 units of the drug must be diluted in 20 ml of novocaine solution (0.5%). Injections are done every 10 days.
We recommend that you learn how to recognize and treat actinomycosis in cows.
Popular broad-spectrum antibiotic manufacturers
The article has already mentioned the importance of choosing a quality drug that will help to quickly achieve the desired result without harming the body of both cattle and a person who consumes farm products. Consider which manufacturers of broad-spectrum antibiotics are the most popular.
It was first isolated in 1945 from the radiant fungus Streptomyces aureofaciens.
The base of the drug is a light yellow crystalline powder, poorly soluble in water. The drug is released in the form of a powder, tablets or capsules.
With prolonged use to prevent inflammation of the mucous membranes (candidiasis) in cattle, the drug is also used in the form of dragees.
In the sphere of influence of the antibiotic:
- anthrax microbes;
- E. coli;
- pasteurella and others
Did you know? Proteins of cow's milk are able to bind toxins in the human body, so people working in harmful industries get milk.
Theoretically, the activity of 1 mg of the drug is 1 UNIT, and the shelf life when stored in a dry, dark place is 2 years. The maximum concentration of the drug in the blood is created 2-3 hours after administration and is maintained at the required level up to 12 hours. For effective exposure, the required dose of the drug in the blood is 0.5-1.5 μg / ml.
The first use of penicillins began in 1941 due to the discovery by Alexander Fleming of the antibacterial effect in preparations from penicillin mushrooms.
Important! Animals in which allergic reactions to any of the preparations were observed are strictly forbidden to use the entire range of penicillins in any form. Modern semi-synthetic drugs have a wider spectrum of action, greater absorption and a period of action (up to 8 hours) and are active against penicillin-forming staphylococci. Penicillin penetrates well into tissues and organs, excreted from the body mainly by the kidneys.
Penicillins are used for anthrax, necrobacteriosis, pasteurellosis, pneumonia, mastitis, pleurisy, bronchitis, metritis, wound infections, otitis media, sepsis, actinomycosis, emphysematous carbuncle, streptococcal septicemia, etc.
The disadvantage of such drugs is the initiation of allergic reactions up to anaphylactic shock and death, with the introduction of large doses and prolonged use.
The main constituent is ceftiofur hydrochloride. The composition also contains additional funds in the form of cottonseed oil, pyrogen-free water, sorbitan monooleate.
Ceftiocline can be treated only after the recommendation of the veterinarian who examined the sick animal. The dosage is 1 ml / 50 kg of cattle under the skin or intramuscularly 1 time in 24 hours. The duration of treatment depends on the type of disease:
- endometritis - 5 days;
- necrobacteriosis - 3 days;
- respiratory diseases - 3-5 days.
Important! It is strictly forbidden to breed other drugs in the same syringe with Ceftiocline. Slaughter of cattle after treatment with Ceftiocline is allowed after 8 days from the last injection. If you received the meat earlier than this time, it must be disposed of, since the use of such meat products in food is strictly prohibited.
The effectiveness of the drug lies in the fact that its basis is the synthesis of Amoxicillin and Gentamicin.
Gestam is administered to a sick animal once every 24 hours. The dosage is calculated based on the weight of the "patient": 1 ml of suspension / 10 kg of weight. The bottle must be shaken vigorously before opening.
Important! The drug is contraindicated in pregnant cows, as well as animals suffering from renal failure, auditory nerve neuritis, myasthenia gravis. You can start treatment only under the supervision of a veterinarian.
Available in the form of a solution of light yellow or dark yellow in glass or polymer bottles. Designed for oral administration. Oflosan has antibacterial and antimycoplasmic effects. It inhibits the development and growth of many bacteria of gram-positive and gram-negative species.
Important! The highest concentration of Oflosan after oral administration is observed in the kidneys, liver and lungs. If cows and calves have digestive problems, infectious diseases of the stomach, intestines, genitourinary system, salmonellosis, streptococcosis, necrotic enteritis, peritonitis are detected, then it is advisable to resort to treatment with this tool. For 10 kg of animal weight, it is recommended to use 0.5 mg of the solution, most often it is added to the drink.
Can I drink milk while using antibiotics
You can not drink milk during treatment with a dairy cow antibiotic drug. Veterinarians insist that milk can be eaten after 14-18 days from the time of taking the drug, so buy dairy products from trusted and conscientious sellers. In addition, products sold on the market must undergo laboratory tests.