Alpine breed of goats

Alpine goats are characterized by high adaptive abilities, are able to survive in the most adverse conditions and at the same time maintain their productivity. This feature has made them popular among breeders. We will talk about the alpine breed today in the article.

Origin history

The first ancestors of the alpine goat lived in the provincial town of Savoy in France. At this point, the borders of 3 states converge:

  • France;
  • Switzerland;
  • Italy.
This makes it impossible to accurately state the origin of the breed. Its second name is chamois. 98% of the breeds that are bred in France are chamois. In the primary population, many colors were found. Their main food was pasture, which the animals obtained in mountainous areas, which made them less susceptible to wind and cold.

Important! Since the twentieth century, animals were actively bred by Savoy farmers. The first pedigree book describing these species was created in 1930, which is considered to be the official date of the breed.

Appearance

It is difficult to give a general description of the variety. Inside the species, 2 subtypes are distinguished:

  • French;
  • American.

There are also several color variations:

  • motley;
  • light cervical;
  • chamois;
  • two-tone;
  • interspersed with;
  • bay;
  • ordinary;
  • black-necked.

The hair of goats is shortened, with a thick undercoat, cannot be used in human interests. Legs are well built, strong, long. The muzzle of a goat is long, elongated, slightly flattened. Ears are straight, stand straight.

Check out such goat breeds as: Saanen and Nubian.

Farmers appreciate alpine goats for their simple-minded, flexible character. Animals enjoy contact with humans and are unpretentious to living conditions. Unlike other species, they do not need constant supervision, they quickly remember the way home.

Breed standard

The breed standard to which they are guided, choosing a quality individual, displays the table:

AppearanceStandard
HeadLong, flat
HornsStrong, flat, hollow
Average height at the withers of a goat (cm)85–90
Average height at the withers of the goat (cm)70–80
NeckMiddle length
ChestProtrudes slightly, rounded
StomachRounded
LegsTall, strong, with sensitive hooves.

Productive qualities

The Alpine breed of goats entered the top three in terms of the number of milkings. The average annual milk production is 700–800 liters. Otherwise, how much an individual gives milk depends on the conditions of feeding and the ration of feeding. The most productive goats can produce up to 1200 liters per year.

Dairy products of alpine goats are completely odorless, which gives it a resemblance to a cow. The fat content is 3.7%, protein - 3.2%. The breed has a pronounced milk orientation. The meat yield from the carcass of an adult is only 45%, i.e. an average of 10 kg.

Did you know? Goat milk is more beneficial than cow milk. Mention of its healing properties are found in Avicenna's notes. Ancient Roman healers treated with his help the spleen. Adding sesame seeds, they received the drug from catarrh of the eyes, and in combination with sea pebbles and barley groats from dysentery.

Alpine goats are very prolific. Even the birthright gives birth to 2 kids. On average, an adult female leads 3-4 babies in one pregnancy.

Advantages and disadvantages

  • pros
  • high adaptive abilities;
  • good exterior;
  • endurance;
  • unpretentiousness in care and diet;
  • fertility;
  • high milk yield;
  • balanced character;
  • long-term preservation of genetic data and productivity;
  • the ability to use the variety to preserve and improve the genetic characteristics of other breeds.

  • Minuses
  • poorly respond to poor-quality water;
  • unproductive in the meat direction;
  • high price.

Breeding Features

Alpiyeks are often crossed with other breeds, and the results are most often positive. Females reach sexual maturity at 7–8 months, but they begin to mate with males after reaching 1.5 years. The gestation of the kids lasts 5.5 months.

Childbirth usually goes without complications. The animal does not need human help. The survival rate of young animals is 90%. Alpine goats are distinguished by a well-developed maternal instinct and high milk productivity, which allows them to independently feed offspring. Already from the second birth, females give 4–5 kids.

Conditions of detention

Plus, in the breeding of these animals - they do not need to erect capital housing. One individual will need 3-4 square meters. m. To maintain milk production throughout the winter period, you need to take care of the insulation of the room. Do not forget about the basic rules of hygiene:

    • the ability to properly ventilate the room;
    • cleaning the barn once a week;
    • constantly clean and dry bedding.
    Males are kept in stalls separate from females and kids. The weak point of alpine individuals is their hooves. In the goathouse, it is necessary to make the floor from the boards, raising it first to a height of 20 cm, and cover it with a bed of straw or hay.

    Important! Goats of this breed are accustomed to spend the night on elevations. In the goathouse, plank shelves should be equipped at a height of 50-60 cm from the floor.

    Feeding

    The basis of the winter diet is high-quality hay, which can be given in unlimited quantities. At the end of the grazing season, a supply of grain and vegetables should be made. The grain is steamed and boiled vegetables are added to it. With the onset of heat, goats are transferred to pasture.

    Watering

    Particular attention should be paid to water. Alpine women are very fastidious in this matter. If the drinker is dirty, the animal will not touch the water. You should wash the drinkers with a non-aggressive detergent once a day. A more convenient option is to build a nipple drinker on the site and in the pens.

    Grazing

    Grazing for alpies is required. They prefer dry foods rich in fiber, so even in a green meadow they will try to find just such food. Accordingly, they will have to find a suitable pasture or build a walking area near the goat house and provide the animals with the necessary feed.

    Did you know? Goats have pupils of a rectangular shape, which gives them the opportunity to get an overview of 340 °, almost without turning their heads. Throughout the day, the pupils remain narrowed and look like clicks. This is a genetic feature of the body that allows you to protect your eyes from the bright sun. In the evening, the pupils dilate, which allows the animal to better navigate in the night space.

    Alpine goats in Russia

    In Soviet times, it was forbidden to bring these goats to Russia. After the collapse of the USSR, breeders began to purchase the Saanen breed, which was popular at that time. The breed’s potential is simply ignored, although it is obvious that this variety is best suited for breeding in any region of the Russian Federation. The high cost of a thoroughbred individual is compensated by the ability to maintain its genetic and productive characteristics for several generations, even with interbreeding.

    The Alpine breed of goats is unpretentious in breeding a highly productive variety of the dairy direction. On the territory of Russia it is not widespread, it is better known among French farmers. The breed adapts well in any climatic conditions, which gives a good prospect of breeding anywhere in the world.

    Video: Alpine goat breeding and keeping

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