Adiantum: a description of a houseplant, planting and care at home
Adiantum is a popular ornamental plant. Unfortunately, not all of its types feel good in apartments. That is why it is worth knowing how to take care of home adiantums so that they flourish and adorn the interior of the house for as long as possible.
Adiantum, or curly fern (botanical name Adiantum) belongs to the adiant family. Homeland plants - tropical forests of Central and South America, New Zealand. Some species originated from Australia, Asia and the African continent. The family of ferns has more than two hundred species, some of which are loved by flower growers and are grown as ornamental vegetation.
The most famous varieties of adiantum:
- Venus of hair is a spectacular plant with a cap of delicate openwork leaves. There are varieties with different foliage colors (bright green, yellow green, bright red). The sizes of leaves in each species also vary - from very small (3-5 cm) to very large (45-50 cm).
- Stop - shaped - 30–75 cm high. Has finely textured, “disheveled” leaves attached to curved stems. Each leaf is divided into finger-shaped processes. He has sinewy, strong stems, painted in color from burgundy to black.
- Gentle - the growth of a bush 80–90 cm high. The leaves are corrugated, large, very decorative. The variety belongs to the popular variety Skutum Roseum. The foliage is originally red in color, but gradually changes color to green.
- Ruddy's fern is large, has black stems, and finely pubescent light green leaves. In perennial ferns, the leaves become brown.
- Aleutian - green finger-shaped leaves border a rigid vertical stem with a characteristic sheen. The color of the stem varies from purple to black.
- Beautiful - a stunted plant with extensive bushes. The drooping triangles of leaves of light green color consist of smaller fragments in the form of a fan, a stem of a crimson-black color.
- Trapezoid fern - a powerful bush with wedge-shaped leaves bent downward, up to a meter in length. The shape of the leaf is trapezoidal, the color of young leaves with a pink tint.
Useful properties of the adiantum
The plant is not only beautiful, but also a medicinal, so it can be grown safely at home. Ferns contain lipids, flavonoids, tannin, essential oil, sugar. Adiantum leaf blades are constituents or additives in medicinal syrups, intravenous solutions and powders.
The tincture with the content of this plant helps to restore the pancreas, spleen, reduces the severity of asthma attacks, has a positive effect on the nervous system, restores blood circulation to the limbs and has a calming effect. Fern juice also treats skin diseases.
The syrup on the leaves of the adiantum is used along with intravenous solutions to reduce fever, and as a cough suppressant. Fern leaf extracts have disinfecting properties and are used to combat functional disorders of the liver and bladder.
Important! Before using the plant for medicinal purposes, it is necessary to consult a doctor and establish an accurate diagnosis.
Adiantum fern juice Venus hair is used to detoxify the body after being bitten by rabid animals. Fern is used in the treatment of oncology. A solution of fern on alcohol helps treat psoriasis. Rinsing hair with a decoction of fern leaves eliminates dandruff.
Planting and growing at home
In order to grow an adiantum from a small plant into a lush bush, the grower must adhere to the rules for caring for it: water it on time, ensure an acceptable temperature, protect it from pests, and transplant it into a new pot. This is more detailed.
The necessary conditions
Most ferns are plants from the bottom of the rainforests, so their requirements are similar. In nature, ferns live on the shady bottom of the forest, grow in moist, humus soil.
Adiantum needs to be provided with similar conditions in home growing:
- A room with high humidity (70–80%) and temperature +19 ... + 22 ° C. When the humidity is low (50-60%), and the temperature is high (+25 ... + 27 ° C), the leaves of the adiantum wither, the plant becomes sick. In winter, it is better to transfer the plant to a not too warm, but brightly lit bathroom. If this is not possible, it is better to place the flower as far as possible from the battery and install the pot on a stand filled with water and expanded clay. A good place for a fern near an open aquarium or an existing humidifier.
- A well-lit place, without direct sunlight. In summer, the plant is bad on the windowsill of the southern window, because thin leaves are sensitive to burns. In winter, the flower should also be located in a place where only scattered rays of light reach its leaves.
- Adiantum is heat and moisture loving. In winter, it should be watered less often than in summer. If the room temperature drops below +18 ° C, the flower in the pot is watered with a frequency of once every 10-14 days. In winter, the soil in the pot should be slightly moist, but not wet.
- Turn the pot from time to time (every three to four days) so that all sides of the plant receive diffused light.
- Ferns need a permeable, fertile substrate with a slightly acidic PH (5.8–6.5). Compost soil with a high content of peat and humus is suitable.
Preparation for landing
After buying a fern sprout, it is better to transplant it from a store pot into a new one. But before that, give the plant time to get used to the new conditions. The plant may turn yellow, in this case it is necessary to cut off the damaged leaves and let them grow again. The main thing is not to rush to transplant or begin to fertilize the flower: the plant is under stress, and this is normal. Follow the rules of care and pay regular attention.
Check out the features of growing Asplenium ferns.
A fern is needed for a fern, but not necessarily high. Inexperienced growers believe that the larger the flowerpot, the better for the fern, but this is wrong. Small containers are suitable for adiantum.
For example, a healthy fern at the age of five needs a three-liter pot.
You can understand that the root system of the flower becomes crowded, and the plant needs more capacity, according to the roots that appeared on the surface of the soil in a pot. Important! It is undesirable to use a metal pot for planting an adiantum, since the walls of the tank will begin to rust from contact with constantly wet soil. The best choice is pots made of plastic, ceramic, wood or glass.
The soil for the adiantum should be light, loose, breathable. A mixture of leaf and meadow land combined with peat and some sand is suitable. It is allowed to use charcoal, bark and dolomite flour as impurities to the soil mixture. Do not forget about the drainage layer, because stagnant water is harmful to the health of the fern.
To keep the plant healthy for many years, the soil must be sanitized before planting. At home, this can be done in several ways: bake in the oven, freeze, disinfect with disinfectant solutions.
- Calcination. The soil mixture is evenly scattered over the baking sheet with a layer of 3-5 cm. The baking sheet with soil is installed in the oven and heated for 30 minutes at a temperature of 180-200 ° C. After this procedure, the soil becomes completely sterile. When the soil cools, you can plant fern.
- Freezing. The soil is placed in a plastic bag, which is installed in the freezer of the refrigerator for 5-6 hours. At the end of freezing, the soil is removed from the freezer and left at room temperature until completely warmed up. When the air temperature in the room and the temperature of the soil become equal, you can start planting a home flower.
- Watering with a disinfecting solution. In slightly warm water (1 liter) add 1-2 crystals of potassium permanganate and mix well. Water should acquire a dark pink color. Disinfectant solution is abundantly watered the soil, previously poured into the planting tank. After watering, the pot is left for several hours in order to allow excess moisture to the glass through the drainage holes. As soon as the disinfected soil in the pot becomes moderately wet, you can start planting the fern.
You can plant a fern with sprouts or seeds. A properly planted plant will develop fully and without delay, therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the planting procedure.
Features planting sprouts:
- Root condition - before planting, the roots are thoroughly examined, all rotten ones must be removed, and mature roots must not be broken.
- Before planting into a new container, the already properly trimmed root system of the plant can be soaked for 30-60 minutes in a pale pink solution of manganese and water. Such soaking will dry and disinfect the roots at the cut points. Immediately after soaking the roots of the plant, you can plant it in a new container.
- The root neck cannot be deeply buried in the ground, it must remain flush with the ground in the pot. Be sure to remove old, damaged, diseased and yellow leaves.
- As a nursery take a box with disinfected soil and drainage at the bottom.
- Sowing spores are collected from the back of the leaf plate and dispersed over the surface of the soil.
- Crops are watered and covered with polyethylene (glass), after which they are placed in a dark place until sprouts appear.
- Usually at least 2–2.5 months pass between sowing and the appearance of seedlings. At this time, the earth must not be allowed to dry.
- As soon as the first sprouts appear from the ground, the seedling box is moved to a lighted place.
- Polyethylene or glass, covering the box on top, remain in place, but once or twice a week they are opened for 20-30 minutes to ventilate young ferns. The temperature in the room where there is a box with seedlings should remain in the range +20 ... + 22 ° C, with an air humidity of 60–70%.
Features of home care
The plant does not like a change of place. Therefore, you need to think carefully about where you put the flower for constant growth. You also need to protect it from cold drafts and prevent dust from entering the leaves.
Fertilizing and watering
Adiantum should be watered regularly, because the plant is sensitive to the drying of the soil. However, you do not need to fill the plant, check the condition of the earth in the pot - it should always be slightly moist, but not wet.
It is desirable that the irrigation water is not hard, so it is better to use melt or rain water. Tap water is also suitable, but it is left to stand for 5–10 hours before use. A native of the tropics needs moderate hydration of the soil and leaves two to three times a week. Drying of the topsoil should not be allowed; it should always remain slightly moist.
Learn the best way to feed indoor plants.
Adiantum is not formed using pruning, but allows its green “hat” to grow arbitrarily. But surely remove dried, sick or broken branches and leaves. Damaged parts not only reduce the decorativeness of ferns, but also serve as a haven for pests.
The roots of old or diseased plants are pruned. This is done in such cases:
- when transplanting into a pot of a larger diameter;
- when dividing the old bush;
- with obvious signs of rotting of the root system.
Young ferns are transplanted in the spring, once every two years. When the plants mature, they need replanting only when the roots appear on the surface of the soil. That is, the root mass grows so much that it becomes crowded in the same pot. In this case, the flower grower waits for the onset of spring, selects a capacity of the appropriate volume and transplants. At the same time, some of the roots are cut a little. In autumn, the plant is undesirable to disturb the transplant.
Important! During transplanting, it is undesirable to compact the soil too much in the root zone of the plant, as the fern loves loose soil. Try not to overdo it with pruning, removing only really diseased parts, because the root system of the adiantum grows very slowly.
Potted plant roots tend to rot due to excess water. The root system should never stand in water, because without oxygen, the roots die and lose the ability to absorb water. To prevent this, a 2-cm layer of drainage from fragments of ceramic pots, expanded clay, coarse gravel should be located at the bottom of the container. Due to this, the water will not settle in the root zone, but will fall lower - into the drainage layer.
Video: Adiantum Transplant
Ferns are propagated by spores and root division of the bush. The flower grower can choose the method most convenient for him.
Ferns older than 5 years partially lose their decorative effect, so their root system is usually divided into several young plants. The technique is used to quickly obtain young adiantums. The operation is performed on adult plants in which the root system is well developed. Separation of the maternal root into separate fractions can cause the death of a donor fern. It should also be borne in mind that not all separated parts will survive successfully. Fern rhizome is very sensitive to mechanical damage, as well as the ground part of the plant.
How to properly split the root:
- The procedure is carried out in the spring.
- The bush intended for separation is carefully removed from the pot.
- The roots are shaken off the soil.
- Before the separation begins, the sharp knife blade is rubbed with alcohol or calcined over a fire, after which the root is cut into separate fractions with gentle movements so that 1-2 leaves remain on the aerial part of each root.
- Fractions are planted in individual pots with sterilized soil.
- After planting in the soil, it is well watered, the ground part of the plant is moistened with a spray gun.
- Pots with seedlings are transferred to a place with diffused light and warm temperature.
- After the young adiantums take root and grow, it is necessary to feed the sheet with any growth stimulant (Epin, Emistim).
- Separated plants slowly build up green and root mass. You need to take care of them in the same way as for adult ferns.
Ferns do not bloom in order to reproduce seeds with the help of flowers, as most plants do. They multiply by spores from which a new plant develops. Spores mature in small sacs that attach to the underside of the leaves.
Diseases and Pests
Adiantum is resistant to diseases of indoor flowers, but prone to root rot. This happens if the plant is too often and over-watered. In this case, the adiantum should be removed from the soil, its root system must be washed with water and examined. Decay can be recognized by softened areas and white plaque on the roots. Damaged root parts are cut off with a sharp knife. The diseased plant is left outside the planting tank for several days.
Over the next few days, it is necessary to check the hardness of the root parts daily. When they harden and harden, the fern can be planted in a fresh, nutrient-rich substrate. In the first days after transplanting, the soil in the pot must be kept slightly moist, and then gradually you can return to normal watering. In most cases, this way you can save the indoor fern from death.
- Poor growth and yellowing of leaves. Reason: improper watering. In summer, the soil should always remain slightly moist, in winter it is advisable to water the bush no more than once a week or two (depending on the room temperature).
- Burns of the leaves. Reason: the light is too bright. It is necessary to rearrange the pot with the plant away from direct sunlight.
- Скручивание листьев. Причина: переохлаждение или переполнение горшка корнями. Как только первые корни появятся на поверхности грунта — пора пересаживать растение в горшок большего объёма.
- Сохнут листья, покрываются сухими пятнами у черешка и крошатся, или же окантовка листьев становится высохшей. Причина: слишком сухой воздух в комнате.
- Листовые и стеблевые нематоды. Предпочитают влажные места, их привлекает регулярные увлажнения листьев папоротника. Проникают во внутреннюю часть листьев и питаются лиственными клетками, в результате листовой покров становится коричневым и папоротник погибает. В этом случае необходимо действовать решительно и быстро. Отрезают все коричневые листья, одновременно уменьшая полив и прекращая распыление влаги по листьям. Одновременно желательно использовать средства по защите растений от нематоды («БИ-58», «РОГОР», «Нематофагин БТ», диметоат).
- Aphid. Селится на зелёных листьях папоротника. Этих крохотных насекомых можно распознать по белой, пунктирной форме. Колонизируют верхнюю поверхность листьев. В случае небольшого поражения адиантум переносят в ванную и смывают тлю жёсткой струёй воды. Если тля поразила всю поверхность растения, для борьбы с ней используют мыло (измельчить на мелкой тёрке и припудривать мыльным порошком папоротник ежедневно на протяжении недели).
- Spider mite. Присутствие клеща на растении выдает тонкая, почти невесомая паутина, висящая в разветвлениях стеблей. Если вовремя не принять мер по защите адиантума от паутинного клеща, растение погибнет. Горшок с заражённым паутинным клещом папоротником устанавливают в прозрачный или полупрозрачный большой полиэтиленовый пакет и выдерживают в течение 10 дней, паутинный клещ за это время погибает. Для дополнительной гарантии того, что паразит будет уничтожен, под пакетом можно распылить инсектицид («Актеллик», «Неорон», «Фитоверм», «Акарин», «Аполло», «Вермитек»). В это время папоротник поливают в обычном режиме.