Abutilon: a description of the plant, especially the cultivation and care at home
Abutilon, also called indoor maple, is one of the few plants that can bloom throughout the year. For this, it is necessary to provide proper care for it. This article will help to understand all the subtleties of growing this inhabitant of the tropics and subtropics of our planet.
Description and characteristics of the plant
The rope maple represents the genus Abutilon from the Malvaceae family. This genus of plants includes approximately 150 species of diverse perennial and annual shrubs, grasses and also trees. However, from this large number of species, only a few of them are grown as ornamental plants.
Did you know? The coarse fibers of abutilon are used for the production of ropes and a variety of woven products. Due to this feature, this plant got its second name "cable car".
Abutilon is a small tree or shrub that stays green year-round. The birthplace of the plant is South America, and in particular Brazil. Under natural conditions, cable car found in Africa and the subtropical and tropical zones of Australia, China and India.
This plant has dense stems that weave strongly at the base. The bark of stiff shoots has a brownish-purple hue. Along the entire trunk there are graceful leaves, the size of which varies from 10 to 20 cm, and in shape resembles a maple or grape leaf.
They are smooth and terry, and the color of the petals distinguish white, cream, orange, pink, red, purple and purple. The buds open for several days, but new bells or cups appear in the place of the withering.
The flowering is lush and long, begins in April - May and lasts until October - November. Given the decorative appearance, the question arises whether it can be kept at home?
This plant can be found both in the front gardens, and in gardens or parks, however, from the variety, some varieties of ropeworm, which are grown as indoor plants, are bred. With proper care indoor species can reach 2 m in height.
Thanks to the work of breeders, varieties that are compact in size were bred, there is a strong branching of the trunk, a wide variety of shades of flowers and leaves.
Decorative flowering plants also include tabernemontana, jacobinia, pentas, crossander, oleander.
As home flowers, only the following species are grown:
- Bella Rope (abutilon Bella);
- Darwin's cable car;
- megapotam cable car;
- cableworm bellevue;
- rostrum striped or spotted;
- hybrid ropeway;
- cable car of suntense;
- pink abutilon panther;
- cable car panther;
- grapevine abutilone;
- abutilon isabella;
- Abutilon ASH-Kishmish;
- cable car of Theophrastus;
- organza cable car;
- cable car Isabella;
- abutilon chipy;
- apricot rope;
- Abutilon Zlata;
- dwarf rope;
- abutilone variegate;
- wedge-shaped abutilon;
- Amazonian cable car;
- yellow abutilon.
Abutilon does not belong to poisonous plants, and even has a number of useful properties and is widely used in folk medicine in their homeland. A decoction of leaves of abutilon is used to wash ulcers and wounds, it is also used as a rinse aid for the appearance of stomatitis and in the process of teething.
With it, you can relieve symptoms of a fever or a cold. A compress based on leaves and flowers is used for wounds and burns that are previously crushed.
In addition to traditional medicine, it is also used in official medicine. Studies of this plant have proved that it contains antioxidants, hepatoprotectors and immunomodulators, so it is a natural antibacterial, antimalarial, antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory agent.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of the cable car include:
- unpretentiousness and ease of care;
- growth rate;
- a long flowering period (April - November), and in indoor conditions it can bloom for a whole year;
- good percentage of seed germination.
There were practically no shortcomings, but in a poorly lit place abutilon does not produce new buds. Also, with insufficient moisture and fertilizer, the leaf plate turns yellow and dries.
Optimal flower growing conditions
The cable car is quite easy to care for and does not need special growing conditions. You need to choose the right place, choose the right pot and soil, regularly water, fertilize and crop.
In order to avoid these problems, it is best to choose a southern window for the winter, but in the summer it is necessary to avoid direct sunlight, because they can harm young shoots. In summer, the rope can be moved to the loggia, outdoor terrace or garden, however, the plant should be protected from the wind.
In the warm season, the optimum temperature regime is + 22 ... + 25ºС, and in winter - + 12 ... + 15ºС. If the temperature drops below + 12ºС, then the plant discards the deciduous cover. The same consequences can be as a result of exposure to drafts.
Additional hydration is not required. In winter, when the flower is in close proximity to the battery, the lack of proper watering and ventilation, the air becomes dry, the leaves begin to dry and curl, so you should periodically moisten the air.
This can be done by spraying or using a humidifier. It will also be useful to bathe the plant periodically under a warm shower (once or twice a month).
If in winter the temperature in the house rises above + 15ºС, then abutilon is watered as necessary (when the soil dries). However, you need to monitor the soil so that it does not become waterlogged and does not dry out, because the leaves can fall off. In summer, the frequency of soil moisture increases up to 3 times in 7 days.
Important! Indoor maple needs abundant watering during the period of active growth, in winter, when the temperature remains within +12 ... + 15ºС, watering is reduced.
Home maple needs regular fertilizer, so during the growing season should be fertilized once every 10-14 days. Top dressing is applied both with watering, and by spraying, while alternately using either mineral or organic complexes.
Periodically, the plant should be pruned. In this way, an attractive shape is formed and the rope is propagated. Cut it in February - March.
Preparation for landing
Before considering the rules of transplantation, you must correctly select the capacity for the cable car and determine what land is needed. When choosing a pot or other container for planting a flower, you must remember that the flower is transplanted annually.
And since the flower grows quickly enough and the roots also grow rapidly, the capacity where the flower will grow should be quite deep. For young cuttings, choose a pot or planter, the diameter of which varies between 7-10 cm.
Learn how to plant indoor flowers in a pot.
Cable car prefers non-acidic, airy soil.
At home, you can prepare the desired mixture using:
- 1 part humus;
- 2 parts of turf land;
- 1 part of sheet land;
- 0.5 parts of sand.
You can also use ready-made soil, for example, "Palm", which is sold in any flower shop.
Reproduction and planting technologies
Abutilon propagates in two ways: seeds and cuttings. After trimming the plant, a large number of cuttings appear that can be rooted. However, indoor maple can also be grown from seeds.
Asking the question of how to propagate the rope, preserving all the characteristics of an adult plant, the optimal is cuttings, which can be used for any variety of abutilon.
In this breeding method, cuttings are used only from the top of the flower. Their length should be no more than 15 cm and have 3-4 leaflets and kidneys. If there is a bud on it, then it must be cut so that the plant can take root faster.
Important! Abutilon cuttings are planted in spring, so that by the summer the plant has grown stronger and could please with lush greenery and flowering.
After circumcision, the appendix does not need special processing and can immediately be placed in a separate tall glass with moist soil. So that he is well rooted, greenhouse conditions are artificially created for him.
In this case, it is necessary to constantly maintain moist soil and air, to ensure a sufficient amount of light and air temperature + 25ºС. If all the conditions are met, then after 2 weeks the cuttings will take root and they can be transplanted into a small pot.
If necessary, the flower is transplanted into a larger pot. Take care of such plants in the same way as for adults.
This method does not require special skills and is quite simple. Pre seeds need to be prepared. To do this, they are sorted out and only the largest ones are left, after which they are soaked in water.
If any of them have surfaced, then these seeds must be selected, since they cannot be used for planting, because the germination rate will be very low.
Important! Hybrid varieties of abutilon can not be grown from seeds, since the basic characteristics of the mother plant will be lost.
A container with a mixture of peat soil and sand is ideal for sowing seeds. It is necessary to sow the seeds to a depth of not more than 8 mm and not less than 5. After sowing, the soil is well moistened and covered with a lid or a special film, thus creating a greenhouse effect.
The temperature should be maintained within the range of +22 ... + 28ºС. The seed container is placed in a well-lit place. So that the air does not stagnate in the mini-greenhouse, it must be periodically ventilated, and the soil moistened if necessary by spraying.
After 20–35 days from the moment of planting, the first shoots are poked. It is possible to transplant plants only when there are 3-4 leaflets on the sprouts. Pots change gradually, in the first year you can transplant a flower up to 4 times.
Plants that are grown in this way begin to bloom after 3-4 months from planting.
Features of care and growing
Under favorable conditions, the cable car grows rapidly, which is why it is necessary to provide optimal conditions and care.
Fertilizer and watering mode
Abutilon during the period of active growth needs regular feeding, which is produced up to 3 times in 30 days. In the off-season, the cable car should be given the opportunity to relax, so the fertilizer is no longer applied. However, if the plant blooms all year round, then the fertilizer continues to be applied in the same mode.
Humidify the soil as needed:
- in summer - a couple of times every 7 days;
- in winter - a couple of times every 14 days, at a temperature above + 15 ° C.
For beginner gardeners it is always interesting when a home maple blooms. It blooms in April or May and delights with its bloom right up to November or October, but if you provide full care, the cable car can bloom all year round.
Cropping and shaping
Since abutilon grows quite quickly, it needs regular pruning. It can be produced at any time of the year. However, it is better to form a crown in early spring, and during the growing season it is better to cut only weak shoots.
To form a tree and stiffen one stem, periodically remove all lateral shoots. And in order to form abutilon bushes, it is necessary to pinch the top of the plant. It is important to understand when to pinch the plant. To increase the branching of the cable car, young shoots pinch in late winter and early spring.
Dates and technology of transplantation
You can transplant a young flower during the first year several times, and starting from the second, a transplant is performed every year and only in spring. Large plants are transplanted no more than 1 time in several years. The capacity should be a finger larger than the previous one. In such a capacity, the plant will grow rapidly and bloom profusely.
The transplantation is carried out by the method of transferring a lump of earth, thus minimizing the likelihood of damage to the root system. Expanded clay, shingle or clay shards are used as a drainage layer.
Diseases and Pests
Unfortunately, the following pests can affect abutilone:
- scale shield;
- spider mite;
- powdery worm.
As a result of such exposure, various leaf diseases develop. To combat these pests, special preparations are used or the leaf plate can be treated with a mild soapy solution. If a spider mite is detected, it is enough to increase the air humidity. This can be done using a humidifier or spraying the flower.
Did you know? Abutilon is secretive in the US Red Book. To restore its population, seeds of ripened fruits are collected, which are first grown in special nurseries, and then the plant is transplanted into the natural environment.
If the soil is waterlogged, then the plant can get root rot. In order to deal with this problem, it is necessary to adjust the irrigation regime and prevent soil acidification. Chlorosis can also occur, which is a consequence of the negative influence of the spider mite.
Why does not bloom
Abutilone may not bloom if the ground is waterlogged or overdried, which most often occurs in winter or summer under direct sunlight. The buds may form poorly or not at all if the soil is depleted or the pot is small.
In addition, the plant needs regular pruning, which will ensure lush flowering.
Why drops leaves
With a strong temperature drop, lack or excess of moisture in the soil, exposure to drafts at the indoor maple leaves may fall.
Why leaves turn yellow
As a result of exposure to high temperatures, direct sunlight and a deficiency of the nutrient elements of the foliage, the flower begins to turn yellow and become stained. The lack of light causes the leaves to fade or fade.
Abutilon conquered the hearts of many flower growers around the world with its lush and bright flowering. In addition, its unpretentiousness in growing allows you to easily grow a large tree or a lush bush from a seed or small cuttings, the main thing is to ensure complete care for this exotic flower.